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Microglia plays vital role in reducing effects of cocaine in the brain

Microglia plays vital role in reducing effects of cocaine in the brain

A type of brain cell known as microglia plays a key role in reducing the effects of cocaine in the brain, according to a major study by a team from the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre in Montreal. [More]
Understanding potential of illicit drug ketamine in treating depression

Understanding potential of illicit drug ketamine in treating depression

Advancing the understanding and treatment of psychiatric disorders is a principal goal of neuroscientists. As mental disorders are the leading cause of disabilities worldwide, it is concerning that there are few effective therapeutics on the market due to the lack of knowledge regarding pathophysiology. [More]
Understanding antibody transport mechanisms in the brain

Understanding antibody transport mechanisms in the brain

Diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), such as stroke, brain cancer, and Alzheimer's disease, are a serious threat affecting over 50 million Americans with an associated cost of over $750 billion per year, which is expected to grow significantly over the coming decades. [More]
Basic mechanisms behind memory are more dynamic, research finds

Basic mechanisms behind memory are more dynamic, research finds

We tend to think our memory works like a filing cabinet. We experience an event, generate a memory and then file it away for later use. However, according to medical research, the basic mechanisms behind memory are much more dynamic. [More]
Drexel study shows how microtubules play vital role in keeping neurons on proper trajectory

Drexel study shows how microtubules play vital role in keeping neurons on proper trajectory

As the human brain develops, neurons leave their birthplace and take a trip to distant locations. Once they reach their final destination, the neurons then send out axons and dendrites -- the branches that receive and send messages from other cells. [More]
Motor protein Myo1c uses actin cytoskeleton as 'track' for Neph1 transport

Motor protein Myo1c uses actin cytoskeleton as 'track' for Neph1 transport

The motor protein Myo1c binds to Neph1, a protein crucial for ensuring effective filtration by the kidney, and serves as one mode of its cellular transport, according to findings by investigators at the Medical University of South Carolina and their collaborators reported in the May 16, 2016 issue of Molecular and Cellular Biology. [More]
New discovery on brain plasticity could help develop biomarkers for SSD treatment

New discovery on brain plasticity could help develop biomarkers for SSD treatment

A new discovery could help people suffering with single-sided deafness (SSD) find a treatment quicker - and could potentially lead to a cure. [More]
Graphene flakes can modulate synapses

Graphene flakes can modulate synapses

The laboratory of SISSA's Laura Ballerini in collaboration with the University of Trieste, the University of Manchester and the University of Castilla -la Mancha, has discovered a new approach to modulating synapses. [More]
Researchers examine role of neural circuit in making decisions

Researchers examine role of neural circuit in making decisions

Choosing what shirt to buy, what to order for lunch or whether to go with the hearty red wine or the lighter white all involve assigning values to the options. A small brain structure plays a central role in the many decisions like this we make each day. But it hasn't been clear how a limited number of neurons in this small part of the brain can support an unlimited number of choices. [More]
Scientists develop new technology that helps visualize translation of mRNA into proteins

Scientists develop new technology that helps visualize translation of mRNA into proteins

For the first time, scientists at Albert Einstein College of Medicine have developed a technology allowing them to "see" single molecules of messenger RNA as they are translated into proteins in living mammalian cells. Initial findings using this technology that may shed light on neurological diseases as well as cancer were published online today in Science. [More]
Human brains constantly make statistical computations to estimate confidence

Human brains constantly make statistical computations to estimate confidence

The directions, which came via cell phone, were a little garbled, but as you understood them: "Turn left at the 3rd light and go straight; the restaurant will be on your right side." Ten minutes ago you made the turn. Still no restaurant in sight. How far will you be willing to drive in the same direction? [More]
Aggregation of SOD1 protein in nerve cells can lead to ALS

Aggregation of SOD1 protein in nerve cells can lead to ALS

Persons with the serious disorder ALS, can have a genetic mutation that causes the protein SOD1 to aggregate in motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Researchers at Umea University have discovered that, when injected into mice, the SOD1 aggregation spreads rapidly leading to ALS. The discovery has been described in the Journal of Clinical Investigation. [More]
Study shows cannabinoid type 2 receptor plays vital role in signal processing of the brain

Study shows cannabinoid type 2 receptor plays vital role in signal processing of the brain

The cannabinoid type 2 receptor - also called "CB2 receptor" - is a special membrane protein. Its function is to receive chemical signals that control cellular activity. "Until now, this receptor was considered part of the immune system without function in nerve cells. [More]
Snapshots of NMDA receptor activation may help in novel drug design

Snapshots of NMDA receptor activation may help in novel drug design

Structural biologists at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and Janelia Research Campus/HHMI, have obtained snapshots of the activation of an important type of brain-cell receptor. Dysfunction of the receptor has been implicated in a range of neurological illnesses, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, seizure, schizophrenia, autism, and injuries related to stroke. [More]
Novel method may enable quick, easy exhaustive analysis of ORs responding to specific odorants

Novel method may enable quick, easy exhaustive analysis of ORs responding to specific odorants

A research group led by Osaka University and Panasonic Corporation developed a method for making a prompt, exhaustive isolation of olfactory receptors (ORs) responding to the odorant of interest. This achievement will enable quick and easy exhaustive analysis of ORs responding to specific odorants, which previously required a great deal of time and effort. These results may be applied to biosensors capable of highly detecting only desired odorants. [More]
Researchers explore changes in Parkinson's-affected cells at different stages of the disease

Researchers explore changes in Parkinson's-affected cells at different stages of the disease

It's an unsettling thought: You could be walking around for 20 years developing Parkinson's disease and not even know it. [More]
Dopamine neuron transplants controlled by designer drug may fight Parkinson's disease in mice

Dopamine neuron transplants controlled by designer drug may fight Parkinson's disease in mice

A University of Wisconsin-Madison neuroscientist has inserted a genetic switch into nerve cells so a patient can alter their activity by taking designer drugs that would not affect any other cell. The cells in question are neurons and make the neurotransmitter dopamine, whose deficiency is the culprit in the widespread movement disorder Parkinson's disease. [More]
Researchers identify role of darks in visual brain maps

Researchers identify role of darks in visual brain maps

Scientists have been studying how visual space is mapped in the cerebral cortex for many decades under the assumption that the map is equal for lights and darks. Surprisingly, recent work demonstrates that visual brain maps are dark-centric and that, just as stars rotate around black holes in the Universe, lights rotate around darks in the brain representation of visual space. [More]
Experimental cancer drug Nutlin-3 shows promise in cancelling effects of fragile X syndrome

Experimental cancer drug Nutlin-3 shows promise in cancelling effects of fragile X syndrome

A University of Wisconsin-Madison researcher who studies the most common genetic intellectual disability has used an experimental drug to reverse — in mice — damage from the mutation that causes the syndrome. [More]
Scientists build semantic atlas to show how human brain organizes language

Scientists build semantic atlas to show how human brain organizes language

What if a map of the brain could help us decode people's inner thoughts? Scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, have taken a step in that direction by building a "semantic atlas" that shows in vivid colors and multiple dimensions how the human brain organizes language. The atlas identifies brain areas that respond to words that have similar meanings. [More]
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