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Research breakthrough could help develop tools to repair damaged nerve cells

Research breakthrough could help develop tools to repair damaged nerve cells

A team of researchers at the IRCM led by Frédéric Charron, PhD, in collaboration with bioengineers at McGill University, uncovered a new kind of synergy in the development of the nervous system, which explains an important mechanism required for neural circuits to form properly. [More]
Understanding how neurons work

Understanding how neurons work

Before scientists can unlock the secrets of the human brain, they must fully understand neurons—the cells of our brain, spinal cord and overall nervous system. Thousands of detailed neuron images, from different organisms, currently sit in individual data collections across the globe, comprising several petabytes of data altogether. [More]
Allen Institute for Brain Science leads international effort to advance analysis of single neurons

Allen Institute for Brain Science leads international effort to advance analysis of single neurons

The Allen Institute for Brain Science is spearheading a landmark international effort to define and advance the state-of-the-art digital reconstruction and analysis of single neurons. The project launching today, called BigNeuron, aims to create reliable high-throughput and quantitative 3D reconstructions of the thousands of branches that make up individual neurons: a crucial step to ultimately understanding how the brain encodes information. [More]
One round of adenosine triphosphate turnover sufficient for SNARE complex disassembly

One round of adenosine triphosphate turnover sufficient for SNARE complex disassembly

In 2013, James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman, and Thomas C. Südhof won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries of molecular machineries for vesicle trafficking, a major transport system in cells for maintaining cellular processes. Vesicle traffic acts as a kind of "home-delivery service" in cells. [More]
New study may help decode attention deficit disorders

New study may help decode attention deficit disorders

Sometimes being too focused on a task is not a good thing. During tasks that require our attention, we might become so engrossed in what we are doing that we fail to notice there is a better way to get the job done. [More]
Rice University study reveals carbon nanotube fibers can provide two-way connection with neurons

Rice University study reveals carbon nanotube fibers can provide two-way connection with neurons

Carbon nanotube fibers invented at Rice University may provide the best way to communicate directly with the brain. [More]
RNA molecule can be manipulated to generate more neurons from neural stem cells

RNA molecule can be manipulated to generate more neurons from neural stem cells

A research team at UC San Francisco has discovered an RNA molecule called Pnky that can be manipulated to increase the production of neurons from neural stem cells. [More]
UZH researchers map spinal cord neurons involved in 'Gate Control Theory' of pain

UZH researchers map spinal cord neurons involved in 'Gate Control Theory' of pain

Sensing pain is extremely unpleasant and sometimes hard to bear - and pain can even become chronic. The perception of pain varies a lot depending on the context in which it is experienced. 50 years ago, neurobiologist Patrick Wall and psychologist Ronald Melzack formulated the so-called "Gate Control Theory" of pain. [More]
UT Southwestern neuroscientists identify key brain cells that control circadian rhythms

UT Southwestern neuroscientists identify key brain cells that control circadian rhythms

UT Southwestern Medical Center neuroscientists have identified key cells within the brain that are critical for determining circadian rhythms, the 24-hour processes that control sleep and wake cycles, as well as other important body functions such as hormone production, metabolism, and blood pressure. [More]
Laura De Laporte receives ERC grant to develop minimally invasive therapy for spinal cord injury

Laura De Laporte receives ERC grant to develop minimally invasive therapy for spinal cord injury

The research objective of Dr.-Ing. Laura De Laporte, junior group leader at DWI - Leibniz Institute for Interactive Materials in Aachen, is to develop a minimally invasive therapy for spinal cord injury. Her goal and her scientific approach to develop an injectable material with the ability to provide biochemical and physical guidance for regenerating nerves across the injury site, was selected by the European Research Council. [More]
Study offers new neurological explanation for variability in roundworm's brain activity

Study offers new neurological explanation for variability in roundworm's brain activity

Even worms have free will. If offered a delicious smell, for example, a roundworm will usually stop its wandering to investigate the source, but sometimes it won't. Just as with humans, the same stimulus does not always provoke the same response, even from the same individual. New research at Rockefeller University, published online today (March 12) in Cell, offers a new neurological explanation for this variability, derived by studying a simple three-cell network within the roundworm brain. [More]
Researchers develop new AFM system for imaging structural dynamics of living cells, neurons

Researchers develop new AFM system for imaging structural dynamics of living cells, neurons

While progress has been made over the past decades in the pursuit to optimize atomic force microscopy (AFM) for imaging living cells, there were still a number of limitations and technological issues that needed to be addressed before fundamental questions in cell biology could be address in living cells. [More]
Neuralstem reports top line data from NSI-566 Phase II trial for treatment of ALS

Neuralstem reports top line data from NSI-566 Phase II trial for treatment of ALS

Neuralstem, Inc. announced top line data from the Phase II trial of NSI-566 spinal cord-derived neural stem cells under development for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The study met primary safety endpoints. The maximum tolerated dose of 16 million transplanted cells and the surgery was well tolerated. [More]
European scientists identify gene linked with certain types of early-onset epilepsy

European scientists identify gene linked with certain types of early-onset epilepsy

Certain types of early-onset epilepsy are caused by previously unknown mutations of a potassium channel gene, KCNA2. The mutations disrupt the electrical balance in the brain in two ways. In some patients, the flow of potassium is greatly reduced; while in others, it is raised enormously. Both states can lead to hard-to-treat epileptic seizures. Mental and motor development can come to a stop, or even to regress. [More]
Existing epilepsy drug reverses aMCI in elderly patients at risk for Alzheimer's disease

Existing epilepsy drug reverses aMCI in elderly patients at risk for Alzheimer's disease

A novel therapeutic approach for an existing drug reverses a condition in elderly patients who are at high risk for dementia due to Alzheimer's disease, researchers at Johns Hopkins University found. [More]

NYU researchers devise computer model to explain how neural circuit learns to categorize

New York University researchers have devised a computer model to explain how a neural circuit learns to classify sensory stimuli into discrete categories, such as "car vs. motorcycle." Their findings, which appear in the journal Nature Communications, shed new light on the brain processes underpinning judgments we make on a daily basis. [More]
Researchers take important step in repairing the cerebral cortex of adult mouse

Researchers take important step in repairing the cerebral cortex of adult mouse

A team led by Afsaneh Gaillard (Inserm Unit 1084, Experimental and Clinical Neurosciences Laboratory, University of Poitiers), in collaboration with the Institute of Interdisciplinary Research in Human and Molecular Biology (IRIBHM) in Brussels, has just taken an important step in the area of cell therapy: repairing the cerebral cortex of the adult mouse using a graft of cortical neurons derived from embryonic stem cells. [More]
New study shows how presenilin gene mutations may lead to familial Alzheimer's disease

New study shows how presenilin gene mutations may lead to familial Alzheimer's disease

Mutations in the presenilin-1 gene are the most common cause of inherited, early-onset forms of Alzheimer's disease. In a new study, published in Neuron, scientists replaced the normal mouse presenilin-1 gene with Alzheimer's-causing forms of the human gene to discover how these genetic changes may lead to the disorder. [More]

Glucocorticoid therapies promote functional recovery of blood-brain barrier after blast injury

Barclay Morrison III, associate professor of biomedical engineering at Columbia Engineering, has led the first study to determine underlying biological mechanisms that promote functional recovery of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after blast injury. The research demonstrates that treatment with the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, after primary blast injury promotes rapid recovery of an in vitro model of the BBB, a highly restrictive semi-permeable barrier whose primary function is to maintain the brain's microenvironment and protect it from potentially toxic substances. [More]
Neuroscientists reveal how olfaction is encoded in the brain

Neuroscientists reveal how olfaction is encoded in the brain

In a study that helps to deconstruct how olfaction is encoded in the brain, neuroscientists at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have identified a type of neuron that appears to help tune, amplify and dampen neuronal responses to chemosensory inputs from the nasal cavity. [More]
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