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Cholinergic neurons in basal forebrain broadcast message throughout the cerebral cortex

Cholinergic neurons in basal forebrain broadcast message throughout the cerebral cortex

When a large combat unit, widely dispersed in dense jungle, goes to battle, no single soldier knows precisely how his actions are affecting the unit's success or failure. But in modern armies, every soldier is connected via an audio link that can instantly receive broadcasts - reporting both positive and negative surprises - based on new intelligence. The real-time broadcasts enable dispersed troops to learn from these reports and can be critical since no solider has an overview of the entire unit's situation. [More]
Common gene mutation may cause brain damage associated with ALS and FTD

Common gene mutation may cause brain damage associated with ALS and FTD

Johns Hopkins researchers say they have discovered some of the first steps in how a very common gene mutation causes the brain damage associated with both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). [More]
Brief exposure to sudden sounds or mild trauma can form long-term memories

Brief exposure to sudden sounds or mild trauma can form long-term memories

Researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center have found how even brief exposure to sudden sounds or mild trauma can form permanent, long-term brain connections, or memories, in a specific region of the brain. Moreover, the research team, working with rats, says it was able to chemically stimulate those biological pathways in the locus coeruleus -- the area of the brain best known for releasing the "fight or flight" hormone noradrenaline -- to heighten and improve the animals' hearing. [More]
Researchers examine relationship between energy needs and 'pleasure' of eating in food intake

Researchers examine relationship between energy needs and 'pleasure' of eating in food intake

A team at the Laboratoire biologie fonctionnelle et adaptative (CNRS/Université Paris Diderot) investigated the relative role of energy needs and "pleasure" of eating in food intake. The researchers studied a group of neurons in mice. They observed that when the neuron activity is compromised, feeding behavior becomes less related to the body's metabolic needs and more dependent on food palatability. [More]
Transplanting mesenchymal stromal cells derived from amniotic membranes can benefit eye diseases

Transplanting mesenchymal stromal cells derived from amniotic membranes can benefit eye diseases

A team of researchers in South Korea has successfully transplanted mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from human amniotic membranes of the placenta (AMSCs) into laboratory mice modeled with oxygen-induced retinopathy (a murine model used to mimic eye disease). [More]
Amherst neurobiologists awarded grant to study how neurons regulate locomotion

Amherst neurobiologists awarded grant to study how neurons regulate locomotion

Neurobiologist Gerald Downes, with chemist James Chambers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst and Amherst College neurobiologist Josef Trapani, have been awarded a three-year $824,025 collaborative research grant from the National Science Foundation to study the zebrafish brain to better understand how neurons regulate locomotion. [More]
Researchers reveal new pathway that governs proper sorting of essential synaptic proteins in neurons

Researchers reveal new pathway that governs proper sorting of essential synaptic proteins in neurons

Genetic analysis of human patients has shown that mutations in genes involved in synaptic communication can drive neuropsychiatric and neurological diseases such as autism spectrum disorder and Alzheimer's disease. [More]
Further understanding of genetic influence in ALS to be explored in new partnership

Further understanding of genetic influence in ALS to be explored in new partnership

Biogen, the ALS Association and Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) today announced a new collaboration to better understand the differences and commonalities in the ALS disease process and how genes influence the clinical features of the disease. [More]
Scientists map 3-D atomic structure of protein complex that controls neurotransmitter release from brain cells

Scientists map 3-D atomic structure of protein complex that controls neurotransmitter release from brain cells

Scientists have revealed never-before-seen details of how our brain sends rapid-fire messages between its cells. They mapped the 3-D atomic structure of a two-part protein complex that controls the release of signaling chemicals, called neurotransmitters, from brain cells. Understanding how cells release those signals in less than one-thousandth of a second could help launch a new wave of research on drugs for treating brain disorders. [More]
Neuroscientist discovers how animal's biological clock wakes up, goes to sleep

Neuroscientist discovers how animal's biological clock wakes up, goes to sleep

Fifteen years ago, an odd mutant fruit fly caught the attention and curiosity of Dr. Ravi Allada, a circadian rhythms expert at Northwestern University, leading the neuroscientist to recently discover how an animal's biological clock wakes it up in the morning and puts it to sleep at night. [More]
Study suggests potential target for treating familial form of ALS

Study suggests potential target for treating familial form of ALS

A healthy motor neuron needs to transport its damaged components from the nerve-muscle connection all the way back to the cell body in the spinal cord. If it cannot, the defective components pile up and the cell becomes sick and dies. Researchers at the NIH's National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke have learned how a mutation in the gene for superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), which causes ALS, leads cells to accumulate damaged materials. [More]
New fly model developed to study motor neuron degeneration

New fly model developed to study motor neuron degeneration

Researchers at the Babraham Institute and University of Massachusetts Medical School in the United States have developed a new model to study motor neuron degeneration and have used this to identify three genes involved in the neurodegeneration process. These findings could have relevance for understanding the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other forms of motor neuron disease (MND). [More]
Einstein and Montefiore researchers receive $1.2 million grant to advance spinal cord injury research

Einstein and Montefiore researchers receive $1.2 million grant to advance spinal cord injury research

Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Health System have received a $1.2 million grant from New York State to advance their promising technology for treating paralysis and other effects of spinal cord injuries (SCI). [More]
Brain-controlled prosthesis could improve quality of life in people with spinal cord injuries

Brain-controlled prosthesis could improve quality of life in people with spinal cord injuries

When we type or perform other precise tasks, our brains and muscles usually work together effortlessly. But when a neurological disease or spinal cord injury severs the connection between the brain and limbs, once-easy motions become difficult or impossible. [More]

Study on marine snails could help better understand underlying mechanisms of age-related memory loss

A new research study on marine snails uncovered the first cells in the nervous system to fail during aging. The University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science researchers' findings are important to better understanding the underlying mechanisms of age-related memory loss in humans. [More]
Mice without specific brain chemical develop characteristics similar to bipolar disorder, shows study

Mice without specific brain chemical develop characteristics similar to bipolar disorder, shows study

Mice that have a particular brain chemical switched off become hyperactive and sleep for just 65 per cent of their normal time. [More]

Static synapses that lie between cell body and AIS critical for decreasing neuronal excitability

In biology, stability is important. From body temperature to blood pressure and sugar levels, our body ensures that these remain within reasonable limits and do not reach potentially damaging extremes. [More]
Researchers use gene-editing technique involving low-dose irradiation to repair human stem cells

Researchers use gene-editing technique involving low-dose irradiation to repair human stem cells

For the first time, researchers have employed a gene-editing technique involving low-dose irradiation to repair patient cells, according to a study published in the journal Stem Cells Translational Medicine. This method, developed by researchers in the Cedars-Sinai Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute, is 10 times more effective than techniques currently in use. [More]
Key differences identified among patients with ALS

Key differences identified among patients with ALS

Researchers on Mayo Clinic's Florida campus have identified key differences between patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease) and those with the most common genetic form of ALS, a mutation in the C9orf72 gene. [More]
Neuroscientists interpret code the brain uses to make noisy neuronal circuits

Neuroscientists interpret code the brain uses to make noisy neuronal circuits

By analyzing the signals of individual neurons in animals undergoing behavioral tests, neuroscientists at Rice University, Baylor College of Medicine, the University of Geneva and the University of Rochester have deciphered the code the brain uses to make the most of its inherently "noisy" neuronal circuits. [More]
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