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Human physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems. Most aspects of human physiology are closely homologous to corresponding aspects of animal physiology, and animal experimentation has provided much of the foundation of physiological knowledge. Anatomy and physiology are closely related fields of study: anatomy, the study of form, and physiology, the study of function, are intrinsically tied and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum.
Novel findings may hold promise for children, adults with mitochondrial disorders

Novel findings may hold promise for children, adults with mitochondrial disorders

Rooted in malfunctions in the tiny power plants that energize our cells, mitochondrial disorders are notoriously complex and variable, with few effective treatments. Now, novel findings in microscopic worms may hold great promise for children and adults with mitochondrial disorders [More]
Portions of female reproductive tract likely to be infected by HIV, shows study

Portions of female reproductive tract likely to be infected by HIV, shows study

A Dartmouth study led by Charles Wira, PhD, with first author Marta Rodriguez-Garcia, MD, PhD, found that some portions of the female reproductive tract (FRT) are more likely to be infected by HIV, particularly the ectocervix compared to the endometrium. [More]
Winners of GSA poster awards announced at 56th Annual Drosophila Research Conference

Winners of GSA poster awards announced at 56th Annual Drosophila Research Conference

The Genetics Society of America (GSA) and the Drosophila research community are pleased to announce the winners of the GSA poster awards at the 56th Annual Drosophila Research Conference, which took place in Chicago, IL, March 4-8, 2015. [More]
Researchers use new gene editing tool to cut HIV DNA

Researchers use new gene editing tool to cut HIV DNA

The virus that causes AIDS is an efficient and crafty retrovirus. Once HIV inserts its DNA into the genome of its host cells, it has a long incubation period, and can remain dormant and hidden for years. [More]
Simple dietary intervention can help reduce weight gain

Simple dietary intervention can help reduce weight gain

A University of Calgary study has found that rats fed a fibre supplement while on a high fat and high sugar diet show a much lower weight gain than those who did not eat the fibre. A team of researchers from the university's Cumming School of Medicine and the Faculty of Kinesiology says the study helps scientists better understand the mechanisms of weight control and energy balance. [More]
CUMC researchers identify cellular defect that could lead to potential new treatment for diabetes

CUMC researchers identify cellular defect that could lead to potential new treatment for diabetes

A cellular defect that can impair the body's ability to handle high glucose levels and could point the way to a potential new treatment for diabetes has been identified by Columbia University Medical Center researchers. [More]
Researchers assess how chronic stress and relationship quality influence individual's blood pressure

Researchers assess how chronic stress and relationship quality influence individual's blood pressure

While other studies have shown that stress and negative marital quality can influence mortality and blood pressure, there has not been research that discussed how it might affect married couples over time. Using systolic blood pressure as a gauge, researchers assessed whether an individual's blood pressure is influenced by their own as well as their partner's reports of chronic stress and whether there are gender differences in these patterns. [More]
Researchers discover genetic factors key to POMC cells

Researchers discover genetic factors key to POMC cells

The little voice inside your head that tells you to eat, or stop eating, isn't a little voice - it's actually a cluster of about 10,000 specialized brain cells. And now, an international team of scientists has found tiny triggers inside those cells that give rise to this "voice", and keep it speaking throughout life. [More]
High status gestures assumed to stimulate psychological, physiological processes

High status gestures assumed to stimulate psychological, physiological processes

Hands pressed to the hips or perhaps leaning back with arms crossed behind the head are typical poses of power. Referred to power poses or high status gestures in technical jargon, they are assumed to stimulate both psychological and physiological processes. [More]
Mouse model may help understand the physiology behind complex brain disorders

Mouse model may help understand the physiology behind complex brain disorders

Complex brain disorders, such as autism or schizophrenia, still puzzle scientists because their causes lie hidden in early events of brain development, which are still poorly understood. [More]
NASH patients more likely to have increased intestinal permeability, shows study

NASH patients more likely to have increased intestinal permeability, shows study

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the more severe form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) that can progress to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, is associated with leakiness of the intestinal wall, which in turn may worsen liver disease, according to research published in Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, the new basic science journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. [More]
UC Davis' John S. Werner wins 2015 Verriest Medal from International Colour Vision Society

UC Davis' John S. Werner wins 2015 Verriest Medal from International Colour Vision Society

John S. Werner, a UC Davis neuroscientist and international authority on visual perception, has been selected to receive the 2015 Verriest Medal from the International Colour Vision Society for his contributions to understanding the structural and functional basis of color vision, how and why vision changes across the life span, and factors that contribute to loss of vision associated with disease. He will receive the award at the society's biennial symposium in Sendai, Japan, in July. [More]
Novel molecule inhibits cancer-causing transcription factors

Novel molecule inhibits cancer-causing transcription factors

A novel molecule designed by scientists at the University of Massachusetts Medical School and the University of Virginia inhibits progression of a hard-to-treat form of recurring acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in patient tissue. [More]
Combined therapy boosts growth in short children with low IGF-1

Combined therapy boosts growth in short children with low IGF-1

Children with short stature benefit from receiving combined treatment with growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1, if they have low endogenous levels of the latter, a study shows. [More]
Folic acid supplements can improve blood vessel dilation in older adults

Folic acid supplements can improve blood vessel dilation in older adults

Supplemental folic acid can enhance blood vessel dilation in older adults, according to Penn State researchers, suggesting that folic acid supplements may be an inexpensive alternative for helping older adults to increase skin blood flow during heat waves and reduce cardiovascular events. [More]
Study suggests possible role for caffeine in AD treatment

Study suggests possible role for caffeine in AD treatment

The proposed link between caffeine and reductions in the beta amyloid plaque accumulation characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) suggest a possible role for caffeine in AD treatment. The latest evidence linking beta amyloid protein to Alzheimer's disease and exploring the relationship between caffeine and beta amyloid are featured in a review article in Journal of Caffeine Research: The International Multidisciplinary Journal of Caffeine Science, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. [More]
New study finds that walnuts have potential to benefit overall health

New study finds that walnuts have potential to benefit overall health

Multiple new research abstracts suggest walnuts may have the potential to positively affect several important health factors. From their impact on colon cancer and certain aspects of cognitive aging, to their positive effect on both gut health and vascular health, the research findings presented at Experimental Biology 2015 detail our latest understanding of walnuts' inner workings. [More]
Reoccurring oxygen deprivation during pregnancy affects offspring's liver function

Reoccurring oxygen deprivation during pregnancy affects offspring's liver function

Sleep apnea, a disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops during sleep, is a potentially serious condition because it deprives the body of oxygen. It becomes an even more serious condition in pregnant women—who can be more prone to it—because the oxygen deprivation may affect the baby. [More]
Blueberries may be effective in treatment for PTSD

Blueberries may be effective in treatment for PTSD

Up to 8 percent of people in the U.S. suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as the result of witnessing or being the victim of a traumatic event. People with PTSD have been in a situation in which they were at risk of death, serious injury or sexual violence or have seen first-hand loved ones faces such threats. They may experience flashbacks, emotional detachment and jumpiness, among other symptoms that affect their ability to function in everyday life. [More]
One round of adenosine triphosphate turnover sufficient for SNARE complex disassembly

One round of adenosine triphosphate turnover sufficient for SNARE complex disassembly

In 2013, James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman, and Thomas C. Südhof won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries of molecular machineries for vesicle trafficking, a major transport system in cells for maintaining cellular processes. Vesicle traffic acts as a kind of "home-delivery service" in cells. [More]
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