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Human physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems. Most aspects of human physiology are closely homologous to corresponding aspects of animal physiology, and animal experimentation has provided much of the foundation of physiological knowledge. Anatomy and physiology are closely related fields of study: anatomy, the study of form, and physiology, the study of function, are intrinsically tied and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum.
UC Berkeley, UCSF researchers team up to create center for neurodegenerative disease research

UC Berkeley, UCSF researchers team up to create center for neurodegenerative disease research

Researchers at UC San Francisco and UC Berkeley have teamed up to create an innovative, integrated center for research on neurodegenerative diseases. Supported by a $3 million grant from the Glenn Foundation for Medical Research, the new center aims to pave the way to developing novel treatments for diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease by investigating the many ways that proteins can malfunction within cells. [More]
Researchers discover mitochondrial and nuclear tRNA-lookalikes in human genome

Researchers discover mitochondrial and nuclear tRNA-lookalikes in human genome

Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are ancient workhorse molecules and part of the cellular process that creates the proteins, critical building blocks of life that keep a cell running smoothly. [More]
Surgical treatment of strabismus can be carried out at any age

Surgical treatment of strabismus can be carried out at any age

Around four per cent of all newborn children have a squint. In about 50 per cent of cases, this can be corrected with appropriate glasses, however the other half require treatment for their squint and in some cases even squint surgery. [More]
UT Arlington scientists explore how fluid flow could play significant role in neuronal growth

UT Arlington scientists explore how fluid flow could play significant role in neuronal growth

A University of Texas at Arlington team exploring how neuron growth can be controlled in the lab and, possibly, in the human body has published a new paper in Nature Scientific Reports on how fluid flow could play a significant role. [More]
Vesicles play significant role in the functioning of neurons

Vesicles play significant role in the functioning of neurons

Tiny vesicles containing protective substances which they transmit to nerve cells apparently play an important role in the functioning of neurons. As cell biologists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) have discovered, nerve cells can enlist the aid of mini-vesicles of neighboring glial cells to defend themselves against stress and other potentially detrimental factors. [More]

John O'Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser win 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded with one half to John O'Keefe and the other half jointly to May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser "for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain". [More]
New method for extracting potential bone-producing cells from human fat

New method for extracting potential bone-producing cells from human fat

Within our fat lives a variety of cells with the potential to become bone, cartilage, or more fat if properly prompted. This makes adipose tissue, in theory, a readily available reservoir for regenerative therapies such as bone healing if doctors can get enough of those cells and compel them to produce bone. [More]
Energy drinks increase frequency of insomnia, nervousness in athletes

Energy drinks increase frequency of insomnia, nervousness in athletes

A study analysing the positive and negative effects of energy drinks on athletes has seen that, although in principle their sports performance was seen to improve by between 3% and 7%, there was also an increase in the frequency of insomnia, nervousness and the level of stimulation in the hours following competition. [More]
ERK and JNK enzymes may offer solutions for treating endometrial, colon cancers

ERK and JNK enzymes may offer solutions for treating endometrial, colon cancers

In the quest to solve cancer's mysteries, they come in handy when describing tongue-twisting processes and pathways that somehow allow tumors to form and thrive. Two examples are ERK (extracellular-signal-related kinase) and JNK (c-June N-Terminal Kinase), enzymes that may offer unexpected solutions for treating some endometrial and colon cancers. [More]
MD Anderson's James P. Allison to receive 2014 Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize for work on immunotherapy

MD Anderson's James P. Allison to receive 2014 Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize for work on immunotherapy

Columbia University will award the 2014 Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize to James P. Allison, PhD, of the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, for his work on understanding the process of T-cell activation and for developing therapies that harness the immune system to fight cancer. [More]
Study uncovers new pathway for treating high blood pressure, heart failure

Study uncovers new pathway for treating high blood pressure, heart failure

New research by scientists at the University of Maryland School of Medicine and the Ottawa Heart Institute has uncovered a new pathway by which the brain uses an unusual steroid to control blood pressure. [More]
Resistance exercise can improve episodic memory, shows study

Resistance exercise can improve episodic memory, shows study

Here's another reason why it's a good idea to hit the gym: it can improve memory. A new Georgia Institute of Technology study shows that an intense workout of as little as 20 minutes can enhance episodic memory, also known as long-term memory for previous events, by about 10 percent in healthy young adults. [More]
Genetic susceptibility to psychosocial stress can increase risk of cardiovascular disease

Genetic susceptibility to psychosocial stress can increase risk of cardiovascular disease

A new genetic finding from Duke Medicine suggests that some people who are prone to hostility, anxiety and depression might also be hard-wired to gain weight when exposed to chronic stress, leading to diabetes and heart disease. [More]
West Virginia University receives NIH award as part of BRAIN initiative

West Virginia University receives NIH award as part of BRAIN initiative

In its first wave of funding awards, a new presidential project aimed at revolutionizing our understanding of the human brain has pledged its support to a group of researchers led by West Virginia University faculty working to change the future of brain imaging. [More]
TSRI study points way to potential therapies for hereditary spastic paraplegia

TSRI study points way to potential therapies for hereditary spastic paraplegia

Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute have discovered that a gene mutation linked to hereditary spastic paraplegia, a disabling neurological disorder, interferes with the normal breakdown of triglyceride fat molecules in the brain. The TSRI researchers found large droplets of triglycerides within the neurons of mice modeling the disease. [More]
More reliable cardiorespiratory fitness data can be obtained using lean mass proportional measures

More reliable cardiorespiratory fitness data can be obtained using lean mass proportional measures

A recent study by the University of Eastern Finland shows that scaling maximal oxygen uptake and maximal workload by body weight confounds measures of cardiorespiratory fitness. It has been a common practice in exercise testing to scale the results by body weight and, according to researchers, this practice should be abandoned. More reliable data on cardiorespiratory fitness can be observed by using lean mass proportional measures. [More]
Pitt researchers awarded new $5.8 million NIH grant to develop microfluidic 3D liver model system

Pitt researchers awarded new $5.8 million NIH grant to develop microfluidic 3D liver model system

With a new $5.8 million, three-year award from the National Institutes of Health, researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine will further develop a state-of-the-art, microfluidic 3D model system that mimics structure and function of the liver to better predict organ physiology, assess drug toxicity and build disease models. [More]
Dynamical glucometry may uncover new ways of understanding diabetes

Dynamical glucometry may uncover new ways of understanding diabetes

For millions of people in the United States living with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, measuring the daily rise and fall of blood glucose (sugar) is a way of life. [More]

NIH awards $10.1 million in supplemental funding to study effects of sex in preclinical, clinical studies

The National Institutes of Health has awarded $10.1 million in supplemental funding to bolster the research of 82 grantees to explore the effects of sex in preclinical and clinical studies. [More]
Exercise may have added benefit for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: Study

Exercise may have added benefit for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: Study

Study after study has proven it true: exercise is good for you. But new research from University of Pennsylvania scientists suggests that exercise may have an added benefit for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. [More]