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Human physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems. Most aspects of human physiology are closely homologous to corresponding aspects of animal physiology, and animal experimentation has provided much of the foundation of physiological knowledge. Anatomy and physiology are closely related fields of study: anatomy, the study of form, and physiology, the study of function, are intrinsically tied and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum.
Study reveals how visceral fat contributes to insulin resistance, inflammation

Study reveals how visceral fat contributes to insulin resistance, inflammation

Researchers have long-known that visceral fat - the kind that wraps around the internal organs - is more dangerous than subcutaneous fat that lies just under the skin around the belly, thighs and rear. But how visceral fat contributes to insulin resistance and inflammation has remained unknown. [More]
Fructose common in western diet can damage brain genes

Fructose common in western diet can damage brain genes

A range of diseases -- from diabetes to cardiovascular disease, and from Alzheimer's disease to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder -- are linked to changes to genes in the brain. A new study by UCLA life scientists has found that hundreds of those genes can be damaged by fructose, a sugar that's common in the Western diet, in a way that could lead to those diseases. [More]
Microtubules affect mechanics of beating heart, study finds

Microtubules affect mechanics of beating heart, study finds

On top of the meaning and mystery that humans heap on the heart, it is first and foremost, a muscle. And one that beats about once a second for a person's entire life, with no rest. Given its vital importance, it's ironic researchers have only recently made direct observations of its subcellular parts in motion. [More]
Endurance running training increases bone density

Endurance running training increases bone density

Spanish researchers have analysed the effect of endurance running training on the stiffness index, a variable that is directly related to bone quality. The results confirm that the greater the race distance that is trained, the better; this can be used, therefore, to prevent the progressive decline in bone mineral density that occurs with age. [More]
UNC scientists develop new optogenetic tool to study function of different proteins

UNC scientists develop new optogenetic tool to study function of different proteins

Scientists at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine have developed a way to embed light-responsive switches into proteins so that researchers can use lasers to manipulate protein movement and activity within living cells and animals. [More]
New Lullaby Trust-funded study could prevent sudden, unexpected deaths of babies and children

New Lullaby Trust-funded study could prevent sudden, unexpected deaths of babies and children

An innovative new study funded by The Lullaby Trust is being launched, which could have profound implications for preventing the sudden and unexpected deaths of babies and children. [More]
Researchers determine mutations in RERE gene can cause many features linked with 1p36 deletions

Researchers determine mutations in RERE gene can cause many features linked with 1p36 deletions

One in 5,000 babies is born missing a small amount of genetic material from the tip of chromosome 1, a region called 1p36. Missing genes in the 1p36 region is a relatively common cause of intellectual disability. [More]
Scientists identify key pathway that regulates 'switch' between wakefulness and sleep

Scientists identify key pathway that regulates 'switch' between wakefulness and sleep

Falling asleep and waking up are key transitions in everyone's day. Millions of people have trouble with these transitions - they find it hard to fall asleep or stay asleep at night, and hard to stay awake during the day. Despite decades of research, how these transitions work - the neurobiological mechanics of our circadian rhythm - has remained largely a mystery to brain scientists. [More]
New classifier method may improve diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders

New classifier method may improve diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders

Many doctors and scientists think they could improve the diagnosis and understanding of autism spectrum disorders if they had reliable means to identify specific abnormalities in the brain. [More]
High dosages of antihistamines have dulling effect on genes associated with post-exercise recovery

High dosages of antihistamines have dulling effect on genes associated with post-exercise recovery

After vigorous exercise, some 3,000 genes go to work to aid recovery by boosting muscles and blood vessels, but in the presence of high doses of antihistamines almost 27 percent of the gene response is blunted, according to University of Oregon researchers. [More]
Researchers investigate biochemical, physiological characteristics of facial and extraocular muscles

Researchers investigate biochemical, physiological characteristics of facial and extraocular muscles

In a new study, a research team at Basel University Hospital in Switzerland investigates the biochemical and physiological characteristics of orbicularis oculi, a group of facial muscles that control the eyelids and are selectively spared or involved in different neuromuscular disorders. What they found also helps to explain why another set of muscles—the extraocular muscles that control the movement of the eye—are not affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy, congenital muscular dystrophy, and aging. [More]
New plant-derived oral drug can prevent progression of multiple sclerosis

New plant-derived oral drug can prevent progression of multiple sclerosis

An international research team has demonstrated that a new plant-derived drug can block the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). [More]
HIIT workout with integral electro-stimulation better than conventional aerobic exercise

HIIT workout with integral electro-stimulation better than conventional aerobic exercise

Practicing High Intensity Interval Training, or HIIT, together with integral electro-stimulation generates an up to 30% higher consumption of calories than conventional aerobic exercise. [More]
Traditional Chinese medicinal plant produces compounds that may help to kill human cancers

Traditional Chinese medicinal plant produces compounds that may help to kill human cancers

New research led by Professor Cathie Martin of the John Innes Centre has revealed how a plant used in traditional Chinese medicine produces compounds which may help to treat cancer and liver diseases. [More]
Study shows how Down Syndrome gene associated with altered oscillations in the cerebral cortex

Study shows how Down Syndrome gene associated with altered oscillations in the cerebral cortex

Cerebral activity is governed by a fine balance between neuronal excitation and inhibition. Specifically, neurons are activated by excitation mechanisms tightly regulated by inhibition processes. For certain functions, the neuronal network needs to be synchronized. [More]
Latest trends in robotic surgery: an interview with Dr. Patrick Ross, Chairman of Surgery for Main Line Health

Latest trends in robotic surgery: an interview with Dr. Patrick Ross, Chairman of Surgery for Main Line Health

When new technology becomes available, surgical or otherwise, there are those who adopt early, and those who hold on to previous familiar methods. [More]
Exercise can lower blood glucose levels among patients taking metformin

Exercise can lower blood glucose levels among patients taking metformin

Exercise can help enhance the effects of blood glucose-lowering medication, according to an award-winning study by a University of Georgia graduate student. [More]
Familiar gene manages transport of proteins around the cell

Familiar gene manages transport of proteins around the cell

How do cells avoid growing topsy-turvy? Growing so your top, front, bottom and back all wind up on the correct side requires a good sense of direction at the cellular level. A Hiroshima University research group has identified a familiar gene with an unexpected role in directing proteins around the cell. [More]
Blocking blood supply of small cell lung cancer tumors may help delay cancer relapse

Blocking blood supply of small cell lung cancer tumors may help delay cancer relapse

A study by researchers at Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine has found that blocking the blood supply of small cell lung cancer tumors may help reduce their growth and delay the regrowth process after treatment. Small cell lung cancer is considered the most lethal of all lung cancers. [More]
Commonly used fungicides could cause gene expression changes in brain cells

Commonly used fungicides could cause gene expression changes in brain cells

Scientists at the UNC School of Medicine have found a class of commonly used fungicides that produce gene expression changes similar to those in people with autism and neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. [More]
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