Cystitis is inflammation of the urinary bladder. The condition more often affects women, but can affect either sex and all age groups.
There are several types of cystitis:
- Traumatic cystitis is probably the most common form of cystitis in the female, and is due to bruising of the bladder, usually by sexual intercourse. This is often followed by bacterial cystitis, frequently by coliform bacteria being transferred from the bowel through the urethra into the bladder.
- interstitial cystitis (IC) is considered more of an injury to the bladder resulting in constant irritation and rarely involves the presence of infection. IC patients are often misdiagnosed with UTI/cystitis for years before they are told that their urine cultures are negative. Antibiotics are not used in the treatment of IC. The cause of IC is unknown, though some suspect it may be autoimmune where the immune system attacks the bladder. Several therapies are now available.
- eosinophilic cystitis is a rare form of cystitis that is diagnosed via biopsy. In these cases, the bladder wall is infiltrated with a high number of eosinophils. The cause of EC is also unknown though it has been triggered in children by certain medications. Some consider it a form of interstitial cystitis.
- radiation cystitis often occurs in patients undergoing radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer.
- hemorrhagic cystitis, can occur as a side effect of cyclophosphamide therapy, and is often prevented by administering mesna.
- In sexually active women the most common cause is from ''E. coli'' and ''Staphylococcus saprophyticus''.
Most cases of cystitis are uncomfortable but disappear without complication after treatment.
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