In medicine, a fistula (pl. fistulas or fistulae) is an abnormal connection or passageway between two epithelium-lined organs or vessels that normally do not connect. It is generally a disease condition, but a fistula may be surgically created for therapeutic reasons.
Fistulas can develop in various parts of the body. The following list is sorted by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems.
H: Diseases of the eye, adnexa, ear, and mastoid process
- Lacrimal fistula
- Mastoid fistula
- Craniosinus fistula: between the intracranial space and a paranasal sinus
- Labyrinthine fistula
- Perilymph fistula: tear between the membranes between the middle and inner ears
- Preauricular fistula
- Preauricular fistula: usually on the top of the cristae helicis ears
I: Diseases of the circulatory system
- Coronary arteriovenous fistula, acquired
- Arteriovenous fistula of pulmonary vessels
- Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula: between an artery and vein of the lungs, resulting in shunting of blood. This results in improperly oxygenated blood.
- Cerebral arteriovenous fistula, acquired
- Arteriovenous fistula, acquired
- Fistula of artery
J: Diseases of the respiratory system
- Pyothorax with fistula
- Tracheoesophageal fistula following tracheostomy: between the breathing and the feeding tubes
K: Diseases of the digestive system
- Fistula of salivary gland
- Fistula of stomach and duodenum
- Gastrocolic fistula
- Gastrojejunocolic fistula - after a Billroth II, a fistula forms between the transverse colon and the upper jejunum (which, post Billroth II, is attached to the remainder of the stomach). Fecal matter passes improperly from the colon to the stomach and causes halitosis.
- Enterocutaneous fistula: between the intestine and the skin surface, namely from the duodenum or the jejunum or the ileum. This definition excludes the fistulas arising from the colon or the appendix.
- Gastric fistula: from the stomach to the skin surface
- Fistula of appendix
- Anal fistula
- Anorectal fistula: connecting the rectum or other anorectal area to the skin surface. This results in abnormal discharge of feces through an opening other than the anus. Also called fistula-in-ano.
- Fecal fistula
- Anorectal fistula
- Fistula of intestine
- Enteroenteral fistula: between two parts of the intestine
- Fistula of gallbladder
- Fistula of bile duct
- Biliary fistula: connecting the bile ducts to the skin surface, often caused by gallbladder surgery
- Pancreatic fistula: between the pancreas and the exterior via the abdominal wall
M: Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
N: Diseases of the urogenital system
- Vesicointestinal fistula
- Urethral fistula
- Innora:between the prostatic utricle and the outside of the body
- Fistula of nipple
- Fistulae involving female genital tract / Obstetric fistula
- Vesicovaginal fistula: between the bladder and the vagina
- Other female urinary-genital tract fistulae
- Cervical fistula: abnormal opening in the cervix
- Fistula of vagina to small intestine
- Enterovaginal fistula: between the intestine and the vagina
- Fistula of vagina to large intestine
- Rectovaginal: between the rectum and the vagina
- Other female intestinal-genital tract fistulae
- Female genital tract-skin fistulae
- Other female genital tract fistulae
- Female genital tract fistula, unspecified
Q: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities
- Sinus, fistula and cyst of branchial cleft
- Congenital Preauricular fistula: A small pit in front of the ear. Also called Fistula Auris Congenita or Ear Pit.
- Portal vein-hepatic artery fistula
- Congenital fistula of lip
- Congenital fistula of salivary gland
- Congenital absence, atresia and stenosis of rectum with fistula
- Congenital absence, atresia and stenosis of anus with fistula
- Congenital fistula of rectum and anus
- Congenital fistulae between uterus and digestive and urinary tracts
- Congenital rectovaginal fistula
T: External causes
- Traumatic arteriovenous fistula
- Persistent postoperative fistula
Various types of fistulas include:
- /b>Blind: with only one open end
- Complete: with both external and internal openings
- Incomplete: a fistula with an external skin opening, which does not connect to any internal organ
Although most fistulas are in forms of a tube, some can also have multiple branches.
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