In medicine, hematuria, or haematuria, is the presence of red blood cells (erythrocytes) in the urine. It may be idiopathic and/or benign, or it can be a sign that there is a kidney stone or a tumor in the urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, prostate, and urethra), ranging from trivial to lethal.
If white blood cells are found in addition to red blood cells, then it is a signal of urinary tract infection.
Occasionally "hemoglobinuria" is used synonymously, although more precisely it refers only to hemoglobin in the urine.
Red discolouration of the urine can have various causes:
- Red blood cells
- Microscopic hematuria (small amounts of blood, can be seen only on urinalysis or light microscopy)
- Macroscopic hematuria (or "frank" or "gross") hematuria
- Hemoglobin (only the red pigment, not the red blood cells)
- Other pigments
- Myoglobin in myoglobinuria
- Porphyrins in porphyria
- Betanin, after eating beets
- Drugs such as Rifampicin and Phenazopyridine
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