Because myopathy is such a general term, there are several classes of myopathy. ICD-10 codes are provided where available.
- (G71.0) Dystrophies (or muscular dystrophies) are a subgroup of myopathies characterized by muscle degeneration and regeneration. Clinically, muscular dystrophies are typically progressive, because the muscles' ability to regenerate is eventually lost, leading to progressive weakness, often leading to use of a wheelchair, and eventually death, usually related to respiratory weakness.
- (G71.1) Myotonia
- (G71.2) The congenital myopathies do not show evidence for either a progressive dystrophic process (i.e., muscle death) or inflammation, but instead characteristic microscopic changes are seen in association with reduced contractile ability of the muscles. Among others, different congenital myopathies include:
- (G71.2) nemaline myopathy (characterized by presence of "nemaline rods" in the muscle),
- (G71.2) multi/minicore myopathy (characterized by multiple small "cores" or areas of disruption in the muscle fibers),
- (G71.2) centronuclear myopathy (or myotubular myopathy) (in which the nuclei are abnormally found in the center of the muscle fibers) is a rare muscle wasting disorder.
- (G71.3) Mitochondrial myopathies are due to defects in mitochondria, which provide a critical source of energy for muscle.
- (G72.3) Familial periodic paralysis
- (G72.4) Inflammatory myopathies are caused by problems with the immune system attacking components of the muscle, leading to signs of inflammation in the muscle.
- (G73.6) Metabolic myopathies result from defects in biochemical metabolism that primarily affect muscle
- (G73.6/E74.0) Glycogen storage diseases may affect muscle
- (G73.6/E75) Lipid storage disorder
- Dermatomyositis is the same as polymyositis, but also shows skin changes - a violaceous periorbital rash, facial erythema, blue or red patches on the knuckles, ragged nail folds and dilated nail capillaries. (M33.2)
- polymyositis which has tender, weak muscles, a mild normocytic anaemia, raised creatine kinase and inflammatory markers and shows short polyphasic action potentials on EMG. It is treated by immunosuppressants like corticosteroids or azathioprine.
- inclusion body myositis, and related myopathies
- (M61) Myositis ossificans
- (M62.89) Rhabdomyolysis and (R82.1) myoglobinurias
- Alcoholic myopathy, can result due to the long-term effects of alcohol abuse. Impaired IGF-1 signaling is one mechanism which is believed to be involved.
- Can be caused by STATINS Citation:BMJ 2010;340:c2197
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