Acute kidney failure usually occurs as the result of a sudden interruption in the blood supply to the kidney, or as a result of a toxic overload of the kidneys.
Some causes of acute failure include accidents, injuries or complications from surgery where the kidneys are deprived of normal blood flow for an extended period of time.
Heart-bypass surgery is an example of a situation in which the kidneys receive reduced blood flow.
Drug overdoses, whether accidental or from chemical overloads of drugs such as antibiotics or chemotherapy, may also cause the onset of acute kidney failure.
Unlike in chronic kidney disease, however, the kidneys can often recover from acute failure, allowing the patient to resume a normal life.
People suffering from acute failure require supportive treatment until their kidneys recover function, and they often remain at an increased risk of developing future kidney failure.
Causes of chronic kidney disease
There are many causes of CKD. The most common cause is diabetes mellitus. The second most common cause is long-standing, uncontrolled, hypertension.
Polycystic kidney disease is also a well known cause of chronic kidney disease. The majority of people afflicted with polycystic kidney disease have a family history of the disease.
Many other genetic illnesses also affect kidney function. Overuse of some common drugs, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, cocaine and acetaminophen can also cause chronic kidney damage.
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