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A virus is a microscopic infectious agent that can reproduce only inside a host cell. Viruses infect all types of organisms: from animals and plants, to bacteria and archaea. Since the initial discovery of tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, more than 5,000 types of virus have been described in detail, although most types of virus remain undiscovered. Viruses are ubiquitous, as they are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth, and are the most abundant type of biological entity on the planet. The study of viruses is known as virology, and is a branch of microbiology.
Study on Zika exposure among HIV-infected patients in Ghana

Study on Zika exposure among HIV-infected patients in Ghana

What many may not know is that the Zika virus is a distant cousin of hepatitis C, a blood borne-virus that attacks the liver and often co-infects HIV patients. [More]
Small doses of cancer drug may be potential treatment for sepsis and other pandemics

Small doses of cancer drug may be potential treatment for sepsis and other pandemics

Results from laboratory experiments and mouse studies suggest that small doses of drugs from a specific class of approved cancer medications called topoisomerase 1 (top1) inhibitors may protect against the overwhelming immune response to infection that sometimes leads to sepsis, a bacterial condition that kills as many as 500,000 people in the United States each year. [More]
Novel gene therapy can treat pulmonary hypertension linked with heart failure

Novel gene therapy can treat pulmonary hypertension linked with heart failure

Scientists have used a novel gene therapy to halt the progression of pulmonary hypertension, a form of high blood pressure in the lung blood vessels that is linked to heart failure, according to a study led by Roger J. Hajjar, MD, Professor of Medicine and Director of the Cardiovascular Research Center at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. [More]
Study sheds light on several aspects of Ebola virus flare-ups in Liberia

Study sheds light on several aspects of Ebola virus flare-ups in Liberia

Ebola virus samples taken from patients in Liberia in June 2015 are strikingly similar in their genetic makeup to other Ebola virus sequences from Western Africa, according to research published online today in the journal Science Advances. The study sheds light on several aspects of the "flare-ups" that have occurred in Liberia since the country was initially declared free of Ebola virus disease. [More]
Pioneering gene therapy may lead to potential cure for common causes of vision loss

Pioneering gene therapy may lead to potential cure for common causes of vision loss

Pioneering gene therapy has restored some vision to patients with a rare form of genetic blindness for as long as four years, raising hopes it could be used to cure common causes of vision loss, new University of Oxford research published today shows. [More]
Single bNAb infusion can protect monkeys from HIV-like virus infection

Single bNAb infusion can protect monkeys from HIV-like virus infection

A single antibody infusion can protect monkeys against infection with an HIV-like virus for up to 23 weeks, researchers have found. The study, published in Nature, was led by scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, and The Rockefeller University. [More]
Experimental therapy has over 90% remission rate for advanced leukemia patients

Experimental therapy has over 90% remission rate for advanced leukemia patients

Twenty-seven of 29 patients with an advanced type of leukemia that had proved resistant to multiple other forms of therapy went into remission after their T cells (disease-fighting immune cells) were genetically engineered to fight their cancers. [More]
ZOTEN nanoparticles can help develop natural immunity against genital herpes

ZOTEN nanoparticles can help develop natural immunity against genital herpes

An effective vaccine against the virus that causes genital herpes has evaded researchers for decades. But now, researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago working with scientists from Germany have shown that zinc-oxide nanoparticles shaped like jacks can prevent the virus from entering cells, and help natural immunity to develop. [More]
More neurological resources needed to manage Zika virus infections

More neurological resources needed to manage Zika virus infections

WFN Zika-Info-Service: World Federation of Neurology establishes Work Group on Zika virus to support international efforts - Lack of neurological resources in countries most concerned by the virus. [More]
Scientists show how HIV enters female reproductive tract

Scientists show how HIV enters female reproductive tract

Finding the vulnerable points where HIV enters the female reproductive tract is like searching for needles in a haystack. But Northwestern Medicine scientists have solved that challenge by creating a glowing map of the very first cells to be infected with a HIV-like virus. [More]
HBcrAg may predict HCC development

HBcrAg may predict HCC development

Research suggests a role for hepatitis B core-related antigen in the prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma development in nucleos(t)ide analogue treatment-naïve patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. [More]
WFA+-M2BP levels linked to liver fibrosis, HCC progression in chronic HBV

WFA+-M2BP levels linked to liver fibrosis, HCC progression in chronic HBV

Japanese researchers have found that serum levels of glycosylated Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive Mac-2 binding protein are a useful marker of not only the degree of liver fibrosis, but also progression to hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. [More]
Serum marker may flag liver fibrosis in chronic HBV

Serum marker may flag liver fibrosis in chronic HBV

Serum levels of Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive Mac-2-binding protein may reflect the severity of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, say researchers. [More]
Research highlights global economic burden of norovirus

Research highlights global economic burden of norovirus

While norovirus is often linked in the news to outbreaks on cruise ships, the highly contagious stomach bug sickens nearly 700 million around the world every year and results in roughly $4.2 billion in health care costs and $60.3 billion in societal costs annually, new Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health research suggests. [More]
New study on retroviral DNA could help improve treatments for HIV infection

New study on retroviral DNA could help improve treatments for HIV infection

When retroviruses such as HIV infect a cell, they first make a copy of their RNA genome in the form of DNA. The relatively short viral DNA strand then moves to the cell nucleus, where it inserts itself into the host cell's DNA. [More]
TSRI study reveals important traits in LCMV, Lassa virus

TSRI study reveals important traits in LCMV, Lassa virus

For the first time, scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have solved the structure of the biological machinery used by a common virus to recognize and attack human host cells. [More]
Zika virus present in Americas prior to first identification in Brazil

Zika virus present in Americas prior to first identification in Brazil

The Zika virus was present in Haiti several months before the first Zika cases were identified in Brazil, according to new research by infectious-disease specialists at the University of Florida. [More]
TGen scientists trace likely origins, dispersal of fungus that causes Valley Fever

TGen scientists trace likely origins, dispersal of fungus that causes Valley Fever

Using the latest in genomic analysis technologies, scientists at the Translational Genomics Research Institute have tracked the likely origins and dispersal of the fungus that causes Valley Fever, according to a study published today in the journal mBio, the premiere journal for reporting high impact microbiological research. [More]
WHO reminds Angola travellers to receive yellow fever vaccination

WHO reminds Angola travellers to receive yellow fever vaccination

As efforts to bring an outbreak of yellow fever in Angola under control continue, the World Health Organization is reminding all travellers to the country that they are required to receive the yellow fever vaccination and to have a valid certificate of vaccination to prove that they are protected from the disease and to prevent its further spread. [More]
Regular aspirin use may help reduce risk of bile duct cancer

Regular aspirin use may help reduce risk of bile duct cancer

Regular use of aspirin was linked with a significantly reduced risk of developing bile duct cancer, also called cholangiocarcinoma, in a recent study. The findings, which are published in the journal Hepatology, indicate that additional research on the potential of aspirin for preventing bile duct cancer is warranted. [More]
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