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A virus is a microscopic infectious agent that can reproduce only inside a host cell. Viruses infect all types of organisms: from animals and plants, to bacteria and archaea. Since the initial discovery of tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, more than 5,000 types of virus have been described in detail, although most types of virus remain undiscovered. Viruses are ubiquitous, as they are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth, and are the most abundant type of biological entity on the planet. The study of viruses is known as virology, and is a branch of microbiology.
Blood tests for Chikungunya virus and rheumatoid arthritis could produce similar results

Blood tests for Chikungunya virus and rheumatoid arthritis could produce similar results

A mosquito-borne virus that has spread to the Caribbean and Central and South America and has caused isolated infections in Florida often causes joint pain and swelling similar to that seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. [More]
Rare respiratory virus could be linked to severe neurological illness in children

Rare respiratory virus could be linked to severe neurological illness in children

A cluster of children from Colorado in the USA have been treated for muscle weakness or paralysis that may be connected to a nationwide outbreak of a usually rare respiratory virus called enterovirus D68 (EV-D68), one of more than 100 non-polio enteroviruses. [More]
AbbVie releases Phase 3 results from all-oral OBV/PTV/r treatment for GT1b chronic HCV infection

AbbVie releases Phase 3 results from all-oral OBV/PTV/r treatment for GT1b chronic HCV infection

AbbVie released top-line Phase 3 results for its investigational, all-oral, ribavirin (RBV)-free, two direct-acting antiviral treatment with ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir (OBV/PTV/r) in patients with genotype 1b (GT1b) chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Japan. [More]
Research shows effectiveness of Tamiflu

Research shows effectiveness of Tamiflu

Earlier this month, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended the use of antiviral drugs to help treat influenza, in a year when the available vaccine is not a good match for the current strain. [More]
Immunotherapy expert discusses the concept of precision immunology and personalized medicine

Immunotherapy expert discusses the concept of precision immunology and personalized medicine

With President Obama's recent State of the Union speech addressing the launch of a national precision medicine initiative to further tackle cancer and other diseases, a leading immunotherapy expert from Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey weighs in on where we stand with precision immunology and personalized medicine and what needs to be accomplished. [More]
Study shows only 15% of newly diagnosed adults seek HIV care

Study shows only 15% of newly diagnosed adults seek HIV care

Between December 2009 and February 2011, health workers with the AMPATH Consortium sought to test and counsel every adult resident in the Bunyala subcounty of Kenya for HIV. [More]
UCSD professor wins 2015 Japan Prize

UCSD professor wins 2015 Japan Prize

Theodore Friedmann, MD, professor in the Department of Pediatrics at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine was named today one of three recipients of the 2015 Japan Prize, a prestigious international award honoring laureates whose "original and outstanding achievements in science and technology have advanced the frontiers of knowledge and served the cause of peace and prosperity for mankind. [More]
Scientists publish catalog of genetic mutations found in head and neck cancers

Scientists publish catalog of genetic mutations found in head and neck cancers

Scientists have published the first comprehensive catalog of genetic mutations and other abnormal changes found in 279 cancers of the head and neck, and have identified several broken molecular pathways that might be targeted by existing and future cancer drugs. [More]
Age and HBsAg level predict NA-induced HBeAg seroconversion durability

Age and HBsAg level predict NA-induced HBeAg seroconversion durability

The combination of age and baseline hepatitis B s-antigen level can help predict hepatitis B virus relapse in patients who achieve hepatitis B e-antigen loss or seroconversion following nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) treatment, researchers report. [More]
Tenofovir stems treatment-induced kidney toxicity in HBV-related chronic hepatitis

Tenofovir stems treatment-induced kidney toxicity in HBV-related chronic hepatitis

Switching to tenofovir may stave further kidney and bone impairment in patients with hepatitis B virus-related chronic hepatitis taking adefovir-based therapy, retrospective study findings suggest. [More]
Long-term TDF therapy offers sustained HBV suppression without resistance

Long-term TDF therapy offers sustained HBV suppression without resistance

Patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection can achieve sustained viral suppression with long-term tenofovir disoproxil fumarate treatment without developing resistance, shows a 7-year study. [More]
Paragon Bioservices receives CMO Leadership Awards for 2015

Paragon Bioservices receives CMO Leadership Awards for 2015

Paragon Bioservices, Inc., a leader in the manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals, has announced today that it has received the CMO Leadership Awards for 2015. Paragon is a leading contract manufacturing organization (CRO-CMO) whose customer base includes global pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, NGOs and government agencies—including the Department of Defense, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). [More]
Case Western researchers awarded NSF grant to develop new method to reduce risk of Ebola virus

Case Western researchers awarded NSF grant to develop new method to reduce risk of Ebola virus

Health care workers must diagnose and isolate Ebola victims at an early stage to have a chance to save them and prevent the virus from spreading. But the most sensitive and quickest diagnostic test produces a small percentage of false negative results that undermine efforts to control the deadly agent. [More]
Imperial College professor honored with Helmholtz International Fellow Award

Imperial College professor honored with Helmholtz International Fellow Award

The British cell biologist Professor Amanda Gay Fisher of Imperial College London has been honored with the Helmholtz International Fellow Award for her excellent research. Fisher is one of seven outstanding researchers from abroad who received the award, each of which is endowed with 20,000 euros. According to the Helmholtz Association, Germany's largest scientific organization, the award also includes an invitation to visit one or several Helmholtz research centers. [More]
Inherited factors linked to head and neck cancers in young adults

Inherited factors linked to head and neck cancers in young adults

An article published online today in the International Journal of Epidemiology pools data from 25 case-control studies and conducts separate analyses to show that head and neck cancers (HNC) in young adults are more likely to be as a result of inherited factors, rather than lifestyle factors such as smoking or drinking alcohol. [More]
NCCS launches human clinical trial of new cancer vaccine

NCCS launches human clinical trial of new cancer vaccine

The National Cancer Centre Singapore has launched a clinical trial of a new cancer vaccine administered to human patients for the first time in the world. Cancer immunotherapy (the harnessing of the body's defence system to fight the patient's cancer, has emerged as one of the most exciting medical breakthroughs in the past two years. [More]
LSU Health New Orleans researcher discovers fragment of toxic Ebola virus protein

LSU Health New Orleans researcher discovers fragment of toxic Ebola virus protein

William Gallaher, PhD, Emeritus Professor of Microbiology, Immunology & Parasitology at LSU Health New Orleans School of Medicine, has discovered a fragment of an Ebola virus protein that is toxic to cells and may contribute to infection and illness. [More]
UTMB study reveals that only about half of teenage girls get HPV vaccine at the recommended age

UTMB study reveals that only about half of teenage girls get HPV vaccine at the recommended age

It's a virus that is responsible for almost all cases of cervical cancer but a new study by University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston researchers indicates that only about half of the girls receive the vaccine at the recommended age to best protect themselves. [More]
Researchers find link between human population density and spread of Ebola virus in forested regions

Researchers find link between human population density and spread of Ebola virus in forested regions

Researchers at SUNY Downstate Medical Center have found an apparent link between human population density and vegetation cover in Africa and the spread of the Ebola virus from animal hosts to humans. [More]
Research breakthrough in understanding mosquito reproductive process

Research breakthrough in understanding mosquito reproductive process

Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes have contributed to the death and suffering of millions throughout human history, earning the mosquito the title as the world's most dangerous animal. Even today, several devastating mosquito-borne diseases (such as malaria, dengue fever and West Nile virus) continue to rage. [More]