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A virus is a microscopic infectious agent that can reproduce only inside a host cell. Viruses infect all types of organisms: from animals and plants, to bacteria and archaea. Since the initial discovery of tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, more than 5,000 types of virus have been described in detail, although most types of virus remain undiscovered. Viruses are ubiquitous, as they are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth, and are the most abundant type of biological entity on the planet. The study of viruses is known as virology, and is a branch of microbiology.
New Ebola vaccine shows promise in first phase 1 clinical trial

New Ebola vaccine shows promise in first phase 1 clinical trial

Results from the first phase 1 trial of an Ebola vaccine based on the current (2014) strain of the virus are today published in The Lancet. Until now, all tested Ebola virus vaccines have been based on the virus strain from the Zaire outbreak in 1976. The results suggest that the new vaccine is safe, and provokes an immune response in recipients, although further long-term testing will be needed to establish whether it can protect against the Ebola virus. [More]
Guinean Government initiates first efficacy trial of Ebola vaccine in Basse-Guinée

Guinean Government initiates first efficacy trial of Ebola vaccine in Basse-Guinée

The Guinean Government with the World Health Organization initiated the very first efficacy trial of an Ebola vaccine this week in an affected community of the Basse-Guinée, one of the areas where most Ebola cases are found in the country. [More]
Study: HBV exposure increases immune system maturation of infants

Study: HBV exposure increases immune system maturation of infants

A Singapore led study has shown that Hepatitis B Virus Infection (HBV) exposure increases the immune system maturation of infants, which may give a better survival advantage to counteract bacterial infection during early life. These findings radically modify the way that HBV vertical infection of neonates (mother-to-child) is portrayed, and present a paradigm shift in the approach to treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B. [More]
Regulus' RG-012 receives orphan medicinal product designation in EU for treatment of Alport syndrome

Regulus' RG-012 receives orphan medicinal product designation in EU for treatment of Alport syndrome

Regulus Therapeutics Inc., a biopharmaceutical company leading the discovery and development of innovative medicines targeting microRNAs, announced today that the European Commission has granted orphan medicinal product designation for RG-012, a single stranded, chemically modified oligonucleotide that binds to and inhibits the function of microRNA-21 ("miR-21") for the treatment of Alport syndrome, a life-threatening genetic kidney disease with no approved therapy. [More]
Personalized gene therapy to fight against cancer

Personalized gene therapy to fight against cancer

The fight to treat cancer and eradicate tumors will likely benefit from a new set of treatments if early development phases continue to show promise, according to Kalorama Information. The healthcare market research publisher stated that gene therapies that are able to deliver genetic material to a specific cell population or tumor that will result in the destruction of the tumor. [More]
CMV-based vaccine provides long-lasting protective immunity against Ebola virus

CMV-based vaccine provides long-lasting protective immunity against Ebola virus

A cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccine provides long-lasting protective immunity against Ebola virus, and has potential for development as a disseminating vaccine strategy to prevent ebolavirus infection of wild African ape populations. [More]
Norovirus vaccine may be available in the future

Norovirus vaccine may be available in the future

A multivalent candidate vaccine elicits broad antibody responses to a range of norovirus strains, including strains not included in the vaccine or previously encountered by participants, according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine. [More]
Duke researchers develop new model to study why some HPV infections go away and others progress

Duke researchers develop new model to study why some HPV infections go away and others progress

For people infected with the human papilloma virus (HPV), the likelihood of clearing the infection and avoiding HPV-related cancer may depend less on the body's disease-fighting arsenal than has been generally assumed. [More]
Cepheid's Xpert Ebola diagnostic test granted FDA Emergency Use Authorization

Cepheid's Xpert Ebola diagnostic test granted FDA Emergency Use Authorization

Cepheid today announced it has received Emergency Use Authorization from the U.S. Food & Drug Administration for Xpert Ebola, a molecular diagnostic test for Ebola Zaire Virus that delivers results in less than two hours. [More]
Newly discovered bodily process may explain fetal brain bleeds

Newly discovered bodily process may explain fetal brain bleeds

A newly discovered bodily process in mice may explain why some human fetuses who have different antigens than their mothers suffer life-threatening brain bleeds, according to a new study. [More]
Scientists identify key molecules that trigger immune system to fight tularemia

Scientists identify key molecules that trigger immune system to fight tularemia

Research led by scientists at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital has identified key molecules that trigger the immune system to launch an attack on the bacterium that causes tularemia. [More]

Funding helps researchers to kiss Multiple Sclerosis (MS) goodbye

Murdoch University researchers have received funding to investigate the link between the Epstein-Barr virus infection, more commonly known as glandular fever or the ‘kissing disease’, and the debilitating disease Multiple Sclerosis (MS). [More]
Study reveals functional heterogeneity of CD4 T cells in immune systems

Study reveals functional heterogeneity of CD4 T cells in immune systems

Utilizing a novel transgenic mouse model, Edward Usherwood, PhD of Dartmouth's Norris Cotton Cancer Center and collaborators found that CD4 T cells divide into two different populations that each has a different job. One type performs antiviral functions, and the other survives life in the host. [More]
Globavir, BioManguinhos partner to jointly evaluate PanGlob RT-PCR Dengue diagnostic assay

Globavir, BioManguinhos partner to jointly evaluate PanGlob RT-PCR Dengue diagnostic assay

Globavir Biosciences, Inc., a biotechnology company developing diagnostic and therapeutic technologies to treat infectious diseases, has announced a partnership with BioManguinhos, a division of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, for a joint evaluation of Globavir's PanGlob RT-PCR Dengue diagnostic assay. [More]
Pathogen may cause high levels of virulence in closely-related hosts

Pathogen may cause high levels of virulence in closely-related hosts

When viruses such as influenza and Ebola jump from one species to another, their ability to cause harm can change dramatically, but research from the University of Cambridge shows that it may be possible to predict the virus's virulence by looking at how deadly it is in closely-related species. [More]
Climate change could accelerate emergence of vector-borne diseases in UK

Climate change could accelerate emergence of vector-borne diseases in UK

Climate change could accelerate the emergence of vector-borne diseases such as chikungunya, dengue fever, and West Nile virus in the UK, warn leading public health experts Dr Jolyon Medlock and Professor Steve Leach from the Emergency Response Department at Public Health England, writing in The Lancet Infectious Diseases journal. [More]
Researchers find way to enhance effects of immunotherapy in glioblastoma

Researchers find way to enhance effects of immunotherapy in glioblastoma

When cancer strikes, it may be possible for patients to fight back with their own defenses, using a strategy known as immunotherapy. According to a new study published in Nature, researchers have found a way to enhance the effects of this therapeutic approach in glioblastoma, a deadly type of brain cancer, and possibly improve patient outcomes. [More]
New technology developed to determine resistance to rabies virus

New technology developed to determine resistance to rabies virus

Researchers at Texas A&M AgriLife Research have developed a new technology to determine sensitivity or resistance to rabies virus. [More]
Neurology Times features special coverage of MS in observance of MS Awareness Month

Neurology Times features special coverage of MS in observance of MS Awareness Month

UBM Medica US announces that Neurology Times, a leading online community and information resource for neurologists and other healthcare providers, is featuring special coverage of multiple sclerosis in observance of MS Awareness Month. [More]
Finding could improve global efforts to prevent HIV transmission, save lives

Finding could improve global efforts to prevent HIV transmission, save lives

People who recently have been infected with HIV may not be as highly infectious as previously believed, a finding that could improve global efforts to prevent HIV transmission and save lives. In particular, the finding bolsters the strategy of treating patients with antiretroviral drugs before the onset of AIDS to prevent transmission. [More]
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