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A virus is a microscopic infectious agent that can reproduce only inside a host cell. Viruses infect all types of organisms: from animals and plants, to bacteria and archaea. Since the initial discovery of tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, more than 5,000 types of virus have been described in detail, although most types of virus remain undiscovered. Viruses are ubiquitous, as they are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth, and are the most abundant type of biological entity on the planet. The study of viruses is known as virology, and is a branch of microbiology.
Researchers sequence genetic blueprint of Lyme-disease-spreading tick

Researchers sequence genetic blueprint of Lyme-disease-spreading tick

Researchers have sequenced the genetic blueprint of one of the most prolific pathogen-transmitting agents on the planet - the Lyme-disease-spreading tick (Ixodes scapularis) that bites humans. The findings could lead to advances in not only disrupting the tick's capacity to spread diseases but also in eradicating the pest. [More]
ZAO provides platform for scientists, clinicians to share new research and clinical data on Zika

ZAO provides platform for scientists, clinicians to share new research and clinical data on Zika

ZAO provides a platform for scientists and clinicians to publish their findings and source data on Zika and its mosquito vectors within days of submission, so that research, medical and government personnel can keep abreast of the rapidly evolving outbreak. [More]
El Niño plays significant role in outbreak of haemorrhagic fevers

El Niño plays significant role in outbreak of haemorrhagic fevers

The dengue virus affects 390 million people globally every year, and fears are that early 2016 will see an epidemic, particularly in South-East Asia, due to the predicted extreme intensity of El Niño. A new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences has revealed the significant role that this monster climatic phenomenon plays in the outbreak of haemorrhagic fevers. [More]
Cold viruses at school largely to blame for asthma hospitalizations

Cold viruses at school largely to blame for asthma hospitalizations

The most dangerous times of year for children with asthma are soon after their schools reopen after a break, and a new study finds that cold viruses are largely to blame. [More]
Umeå University experts describe innovative interventions for fighting Zika virus in Europe

Umeå University experts describe innovative interventions for fighting Zika virus in Europe

Researchers at Umeå University in Sweden help assess the risk that Zika will spread to Europe by describing the transmission season, areas at risk and intervention strategies. By using previous knowledge on Dengue, they are now strategizing on how Zika can be controlled. [More]
Researchers show how antiretroviral therapy reduces HIV infection in female reproductive tract

Researchers show how antiretroviral therapy reduces HIV infection in female reproductive tract

For the first time, investigators in the Division of Infectious Diseases at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine have determined how antiretroviral therapy (ART) affects the way HIV disseminates and establishes infection in the female reproductive tract. [More]
Experimental nanoparticle therapy shows promise for fighting primary liver cancer

Experimental nanoparticle therapy shows promise for fighting primary liver cancer

An experimental nanoparticle therapy that combines low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and fish oil preferentially kills primary liver cancer cells without harming healthy cells, UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers report. [More]
FDA clears Sangamo BioSciences' SB-318 IND application for treatment of MPS I

FDA clears Sangamo BioSciences' SB-318 IND application for treatment of MPS I

Sangamo BioSciences, Inc., the leader in therapeutic genome editing, announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has cleared the Company's Investigational New Drug (IND) application for SB-318, a single treatment strategy intended to provide a life-long therapy for Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I (MPS I). [More]
World Hepatitis Alliance calls for comprehensive hepatitis strategies to help prevent liver cancer deaths

World Hepatitis Alliance calls for comprehensive hepatitis strategies to help prevent liver cancer deaths

Rock-icon David Bowie died recently at the age of 69 after a battle with what is being reported as liver cancer. Each year, more than 800,000 people die from liver cancer globally, the second biggest cancer killer. Yet, a high majority of these deaths are completely preventable. [More]
Study examines links between spending on social services and AIDS deaths in U.S.

Study examines links between spending on social services and AIDS deaths in U.S.

Despite considerable advances in the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS over the past 30 years, HIV infection rates have remained stagnant in the United States for the past decade. A study by researchers at the Yale Global Health Leadership Institute examines links between spending on social services and public health and AIDS deaths in the United States. [More]
Rockefeller University study shows how herpes virus causes traffic jam in immune system pathway

Rockefeller University study shows how herpes virus causes traffic jam in immune system pathway

With over half the U.S. population infected, most people are familiar with the pesky cold sore outbreaks caused by the herpes virus. The virus outsmarts the immune system by interfering with the process that normally allows immune cells to recognize and destroy foreign invaders. How exactly the herpes simplex 1 virus pulls off its nifty scheme has long been elusive to scientists. [More]
UC Davis researchers develop Hepatitis virus-like particles to target breast cancer

UC Davis researchers develop Hepatitis virus-like particles to target breast cancer

UC Davis researchers have developed a way to use the empty shell of a Hepatitis E virus to carry vaccines or drugs into the body. The technique has been tested in rodents as a way to target breast cancer, and is available for commercial licensing through UC Davis Office of Research. [More]
High school wrestlers have highest number of skin infections

High school wrestlers have highest number of skin infections

The first national survey of skin infections among high school athletes has found that wrestlers have the highest number of infections, with football players coming in a distant second, according to researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. [More]
Innate lymphoid cells get destroyed in patients infected with HIV

Innate lymphoid cells get destroyed in patients infected with HIV

A research project headed by Henrik Kloeverpris, a postdoc at the Department of Immunology and Microbiology at the University of Copenhagen, shows that the so-called ILCs (innate lymphoid cells) - a component of the immune system crucial to maintaining immune system balance - are destroyed in patients infected with HIV. [More]
International collaboration critical in dealing with Zika virus outbreak

International collaboration critical in dealing with Zika virus outbreak

The rapid spread of the Zika virus in Latin America and its apparent association with microcephaly is concerning, said an expert in legal and ethical issues relating to public health responses to epidemics. However, fear-based reactions are not the answer. [More]
Cistus extracts attack HIV and Ebola viruses

Cistus extracts attack HIV and Ebola viruses

Scientists at the Helmholtz Zentrum München discover that extracts of the medicinal plant Cistus incanus (Ci) prevent human immunodeficiency viruses from infecting cells. Active antiviral ingredients in the extracts inhibit docking of viral proteins to cells. Antiviral activity of Cistus extracts also targets Ebola- and Marburg viruses. [More]
Research: Adenosine deaminase may help activate immune system against HIV

Research: Adenosine deaminase may help activate immune system against HIV

New research findings published in the February 2016 issue of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology, suggest that a new therapeutic strategy for HIV may already be available by repurposing an existing prescription drug. [More]
New gene cut-and-paste methods help correct disease-causing mutation in animal model

New gene cut-and-paste methods help correct disease-causing mutation in animal model

For the first time, researchers have treated an animal model of a genetic disorder using a viral vector to deliver genome-editing components in which the disease- causing mutation has been corrected. [More]
New way to more efficiently deliver CRISPR/Cas9 therapeutic to mice with Tyrosinemia type I

New way to more efficiently deliver CRISPR/Cas9 therapeutic to mice with Tyrosinemia type I

University of Massachusetts Medical School researchers have found a way to more efficiently delivery a CRISPR/Cas9 therapeutic to adult mice with the metabolic disease Tyrosinemia type I that may also prove to be safer for use in humans. [More]
Study shows several Envigo rat models susceptible to genital HSV-2 infection

Study shows several Envigo rat models susceptible to genital HSV-2 infection

A scientific collaboration between Envigo and the Department of Infectious Disease at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden has unveiled study findings into rat models and their susceptibility to intra-vaginal herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection. [More]
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