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A virus is a microscopic infectious agent that can reproduce only inside a host cell. Viruses infect all types of organisms: from animals and plants, to bacteria and archaea. Since the initial discovery of tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, more than 5,000 types of virus have been described in detail, although most types of virus remain undiscovered. Viruses are ubiquitous, as they are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth, and are the most abundant type of biological entity on the planet. The study of viruses is known as virology, and is a branch of microbiology.
Sleep loss increases chance of catching a cold

Sleep loss increases chance of catching a cold

A new study led by a UC San Francisco sleep researcher supports what parents have been saying for centuries: to avoid getting sick, be sure to get enough sleep. [More]
Gene transfer therapy not beneficial for heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction

Gene transfer therapy not beneficial for heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction

Gene transfer therapy aimed at correcting an enzyme abnormality involved in myocardial contraction and relaxation did not improve outcomes in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction, results of the CUPID 2 study show. [More]
New $6.25 million NIH grant to help investigators launch research center to slow and stop HIV

New $6.25 million NIH grant to help investigators launch research center to slow and stop HIV

A new five-year, $6.25 million grant from the National Institutes of Health will help investigators from Northwestern University, the University of Chicago and others across the city of Chicago work together to slow and stop HIV. [More]
Multiple HIV-1 variants at the beginning of infection impact viral load setpoints

Multiple HIV-1 variants at the beginning of infection impact viral load setpoints

HIV-1 infection with multiple founder variants points to poorer clinical outcomes than infection with a single variant, according to a paper published today in the journal Nature Medicine. [More]
Novel chemical virus can cross double lipid layer surrounding cells to release drugs

Novel chemical virus can cross double lipid layer surrounding cells to release drugs

Viruses are able to redirect the functioning of cells in order to infect them. Inspired by their mode of action, scientists from the CNRS and Université de Strasbourg have designed a "chemical virus" that can cross the double lipid layer that surrounds cells, and then disintegrate in the intracellular medium in order to release active compounds. [More]
Cell-to-cell transmission of HIV leads to development of AIDS

Cell-to-cell transmission of HIV leads to development of AIDS

Researchers from the Gladstone Institutes have revealed that HIV does not cause AIDS by the virus's direct effect on the host's immune cells, but rather through the cells' lethal influence on one another. [More]
Researchers identify druggable target to potentially root out colon cancer, end relapse

Researchers identify druggable target to potentially root out colon cancer, end relapse

Researchers targeting colorectal cancer stem cells - the root cause of disease, resistance to treatment and relapse - have discovered a mechanism to mimic a virus and potentially trigger an immune response to fight the cancer like an infection. [More]
Researchers uncover important cellular functions that help regulate inflammation

Researchers uncover important cellular functions that help regulate inflammation

Researchers at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech have uncovered key cellular functions that help regulate inflammation -- a discovery that could have important implications for the treatment of allergies, heart disease, and certain forms of cancer. [More]
Discovery could open up door for cancer research and treatment

Discovery could open up door for cancer research and treatment

Florida State University researchers have taken a big step forward in the fight against cancer with a discovery that could open up the door for new research and treatment options. [More]
Researchers identify new virus that plays role in rare type of liver cancer

Researchers identify new virus that plays role in rare type of liver cancer

More than a cause of a simple infection, viruses are often involved in the development of serious diseases. Such is the case with liver cancer, which often develops in an organ that has been weakened by hepatitis B or C virus. [More]
Researchers find way to trigger 'virus alert' that may help boost drug's ability to prevent cancer cells

Researchers find way to trigger 'virus alert' that may help boost drug's ability to prevent cancer cells

Working with human cancer cell lines and mice, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and elsewhere have found a way to trigger a type of immune system "virus alert" that may one day boost cancer patients' response to immunotherapy drugs. An increasingly promising focus of cancer research, the drugs are designed to disarm cancer cells' ability to avoid detection and destruction by the immune system. [More]
Discovery could help in development of novel cancer-selective viral therapies

Discovery could help in development of novel cancer-selective viral therapies

Every organism--from a seedling to a president--must protect its DNA at all costs, but precisely how a cell distinguishes between damage to its own DNA and the foreign DNA of an invading virus has remained a mystery. [More]
GOSH to improve rare disease diagnosis with adoption of Congenica’s Sapientia technology

GOSH to improve rare disease diagnosis with adoption of Congenica’s Sapientia technology

Ian was ‘a clumsy child’. He kept bumping into objects and couldn’t see well in the dark. He endured 15 years of tests and misdiagnoses during a lengthy, and sometimes traumatic, diagnostic odyssey. [More]
Antiviral-based therapies have potential to protect humans from deadly Ebola virus

Antiviral-based therapies have potential to protect humans from deadly Ebola virus

For the first time, UK physicians have demonstrated that antiviral-based therapies have the potential to protect humans from the deadly Ebola virus. The report, published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases journal, describes a case-series of eight British health-care workers who were evacuated to the Royal Free Hospital in London, UK after possible accidental exposure to Ebola virus in Sierra Leone between January and March 2015. [More]
Long lasting flu vaccine using antibodies advance from TSRI and Janssen

Long lasting flu vaccine using antibodies advance from TSRI and Janssen

Scientists from The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) and the Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson (Janssen) have found a way to induce antibodies to fight a wide range of influenza subtypes—work that could one day eliminate the need for repeated seasonal flu shots. [More]
Only one in five gay and bisexual teen boys tested for HIV

Only one in five gay and bisexual teen boys tested for HIV

Young men who have sex with men have the highest risk for HIV infection, but only one in five has ever been tested for HIV, a much lower rate than testing for non-adolescents, reports a new national Northwestern Medicine study conducted in partnership with the Center for Innovative Public Health Research. [More]

Pitt and Drexel researchers team up with NIH to investigate persistence of Ebola virus in wastewater

The historic outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa that began in March 2014 and has killed more than 11,000 people since, has raised new questions about the resilience of the virus and tested scientists' understanding of how to contain it. The latest discovery by a group of microbial risk-assessment and virology researchers suggests that the procedures for disposal of Ebola-contaminated liquid waste might underestimate the virus' ability to survive in wastewater. [More]
Researchers discover new hepatitis A-like virus in seals

Researchers discover new hepatitis A-like virus in seals

Scientists in the Center for Infection and Immunity at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health have discovered a new virus in seals that is the closest known relative of the human hepatitis A virus. The finding provides new clues on the emergence of hepatitis A. [More]
Flu remedies can help treat E. coli bacteria

Flu remedies can help treat E. coli bacteria

If the intestinal bacteria level becomes unbalanced, it can cause diseases. Physiologists from the University of Zurich reveal how a specific carbohydrate in the intestinal mucosa heavily multiplies certain E. coli bacteria and thus causes inflammations. These could be treated with flu remedies, which opens up new therapeutic possibilities. [More]
Study: Influenza vaccines offer sustained protection up to 6 months during flu season

Study: Influenza vaccines offer sustained protection up to 6 months during flu season

Individuals who received the flu vaccine were protected for up to 6 months post-vaccination, the duration of most flu seasons, according to a study presented at the 2015 International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases. [More]
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