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A virus is a microscopic infectious agent that can reproduce only inside a host cell. Viruses infect all types of organisms: from animals and plants, to bacteria and archaea. Since the initial discovery of tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, more than 5,000 types of virus have been described in detail, although most types of virus remain undiscovered. Viruses are ubiquitous, as they are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth, and are the most abundant type of biological entity on the planet. The study of viruses is known as virology, and is a branch of microbiology.
SIV can be entrenched in tissues before virus detectable in blood plasma

SIV can be entrenched in tissues before virus detectable in blood plasma

Scientists have generally believed that HIV and its monkey equivalent, SIV, gain a permanent foothold in the body very early after infection, making it difficult to completely eliminate the virus even after antiretroviral therapy has controlled it. [More]
Chemclin's HIV kits for in-vitro qualitative determination of Anti-HIV 1+2

Chemclin's HIV kits for in-vitro qualitative determination of Anti-HIV 1+2

Chemclin's HIV kits are available for in-vitro qualitative determination of Antibody to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Type 2 (Anti-HIV 1+2) and P24 antigen of HIV in human serum or plasma by a sandwich chemiluminescent assay method. [More]
Viewpoints: Problems in training docs; impact of HHS' territory decision; what Halbig decision might mean

Viewpoints: Problems in training docs; impact of HHS' territory decision; what Halbig decision might mean

ast week's burst of world disorder was ideal for a news dump, and the White House didn't disappoint: On no legal basis, all 4.5 million residents of the five U.S. territories were quietly released from ObamaCare. [More]
Chemclin's Anti-TB assay helps in qualitative determination of Anti-TB in human serum

Chemclin's Anti-TB assay helps in qualitative determination of Anti-TB in human serum

Chemclin's Anti-TB assay provides components for in-vitro qualitative determination of Antibody to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (Anti-TB) in human serum or plasma by an indirect chemiluminescent assay method. [More]
Viruses designed to kill cancer cells could boost effectiveness of chemotherapy to arms, legs

Viruses designed to kill cancer cells could boost effectiveness of chemotherapy to arms, legs

Viruses designed to target and kill cancer cells could boost the effectiveness of chemotherapy to the arms and legs and help avoid amputation, a new study reports. [More]
Saudi Arabian researchers detect genetic fragments of MERS-CoV in the air of camel barn

Saudi Arabian researchers detect genetic fragments of MERS-CoV in the air of camel barn

Saudi Arabian researchers have detected genetic fragments of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the air of a barn holding a camel infected with the virus. The work, published this week in mBio-, the online open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology, indicates that further studies are needed to see if the disease can be transmitted through the air. [More]

Cost of Sovaldi and other specialty drugs worries states, pharmaceutical executives

News outlets continue to examine how Solvadi - usually an expensive cure for hepatitis-C - might affect budgets. [More]
Study reveals new invasion mechanism of Enterovirus 71

Study reveals new invasion mechanism of Enterovirus 71

A new study determines glycosylation and pH-dependent conformational changes of virus receptor SCARB2 as crucial for EV71 attachment, entry and uncoating. [More]
Psychology residency training program receives federal funding for 5th consecutive grant cycle

Psychology residency training program receives federal funding for 5th consecutive grant cycle

A psychology residency training program that's a joint effort of the Medical College of Georgia at Georgia Regents University and the Charlie Norwood Veterans Affairs Medical Center has received federal funding for the fifth consecutive grant cycle. [More]
Growth hormone reduces liver fat in HIV-infected patients with excess abdominal fat

Growth hormone reduces liver fat in HIV-infected patients with excess abdominal fat

In a preliminary study, HIV-infected patients with excess abdominal fat who received the growth hormone-releasing hormone analog tesamorelin for 6 months experienced modest reductions in liver fat, according to a study in the July 23/30 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on HIV/AIDS. [More]
HIV self-testing increases proportion of adults initiating antiretroviral therapy

HIV self-testing increases proportion of adults initiating antiretroviral therapy

Among adults in the African country of Malawi offered HIV self-testing, optional home initiation of care compared with standard HIV care resulted in a significant increase in the proportion of adults initiating antiretroviral therapy, according to a study in the July 23/30 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on HIV/AIDS. [More]

New guidelines integrate biomedical advances and behavioral interventions for HIV people

In an innovative approach to HIV prevention, an interdisciplinary group of experts has come together for the first time to lay out a framework of best practices to optimize the role of the clinician in achieving an AIDS-free generation. [More]

Annual HIV diagnosis rate in the U.S. decreases more than 30%: Study

The annual HIV diagnosis rate in the U.S. decreased more than 30 percent from 2002-2011, with declines observed in several key populations, although increases were found among certain age groups of men who have sex with men, especially young men, according to a study in the July 23/30 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on HIV/AIDS. [More]
Discovery presents new challenges for HIV eradication efforts

Discovery presents new challenges for HIV eradication efforts

The most critical barrier for curing HIV-1 infection is the presence of the viral reservoir, the cells in which the HIV virus can lie dormant for many years and avoid elimination by antiretroviral drugs. Very little has been known about when and where the viral reservoir is established during acute HIV-1 infection, or the extent to which it is susceptible to early antiretroviral therapy (ART). [More]
HPV testing may provide better reassurance against cervical cancer than Pap testing

HPV testing may provide better reassurance against cervical cancer than Pap testing

In the US, cotesting for human papilloma virus (HPV) and Pap testing for cervical cancer every 5 years for women aged 30-65 years is now recommended. However, HPV testing alone may provide better reassurance against cervical cancer than Pap testing alone and similar reassurance to cotesting, according to a study published July 18 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. [More]
Chikungunya virus transmission occurs in Florida for the first time

Chikungunya virus transmission occurs in Florida for the first time

The chikungunya virus, which is transmitted to people by mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), was found for the first time in the Americas on islands in the Caribbean in December 2013. Yesterday, the first case of chikungunya in the continental United States was reported in a man from Florida who had not recently travelled outside the United States. [More]
First Edition: July 18, 2014

First Edition: July 18, 2014

Today's headlines include reports from the marketplace, including UnitedHealthcare's move toward the health law's insurance marketplaces and the latest on the Securities and Exchange Commission investigation into insider trading related to a health policy change. [More]
Researchers find viable immunotherapy option for HIV-1 using fossil virus

Researchers find viable immunotherapy option for HIV-1 using fossil virus

The road to finding a cure for HIV-1 is not without obstacles. However, thanks to cutting-edge research by Douglas Nixon, M.D., Ph.D., and colleagues, performed at the George Washington University (GW), Oregon Health & Science University, the University of Rochester, and UC San Francisco, the scientific community is one step closer to finding a viable immunotherapy option for HIV-1, using an immune attack against a fossil virus buried in the genome. [More]
Researchers identify key explanation for why immune system unsuccessful in killing HIV virus

Researchers identify key explanation for why immune system unsuccessful in killing HIV virus

Our immune system contains CD8+ T cells which protect us from various diseases such as cancer and viruses. Some of them are specifically tasked with killing cells infected with the HIV virus - and researchers from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, together with international colleagues, have for the first time identified a key explanation for why these cells are unsuccessful in their task. [More]
Phase II study reveals potential biomarker for HIV vaccine

Phase II study reveals potential biomarker for HIV vaccine

Further analysis of a Phase II study of therapeutic HIV vaccine candidate Vacc-4x revealed a potential biomarker associated with participants who experienced a more profound viral load reduction after receiving the vaccine. [More]