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A virus is a microscopic infectious agent that can reproduce only inside a host cell. Viruses infect all types of organisms: from animals and plants, to bacteria and archaea. Since the initial discovery of tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, more than 5,000 types of virus have been described in detail, although most types of virus remain undiscovered. Viruses are ubiquitous, as they are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth, and are the most abundant type of biological entity on the planet. The study of viruses is known as virology, and is a branch of microbiology.
Researchers develop mouse model to improve basic research on Ebola treatments, vaccines

Researchers develop mouse model to improve basic research on Ebola treatments, vaccines

Researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and colleagues have developed the first genetic strain of mice that can be infected with Ebola and display symptoms similar to those that humans experience. [More]
University of Adelaide-led project develops new test to eradicate H5N1 bird flu

University of Adelaide-led project develops new test to eradicate H5N1 bird flu

A University of Adelaide-led project has developed a new test that can distinguish between birds that have been vaccinated against the H5N1 strain of avian influenza virus or "bird flu" with those that have been naturally infected. [More]
Profectus BioSciences gets funding to develop VesiculoVax Zaire-Ebola virus vaccine

Profectus BioSciences gets funding to develop VesiculoVax Zaire-Ebola virus vaccine

Profectus BioSciences, Inc., a clinical-stage vaccine company developing novel vaccines for the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases, announced today that the Department of Defense through the Medical Countermeasure Systems-Joint Vaccine Acquisition Program, a subordinate command of the Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical and Biological Defense, Edgewood, MD, has contracted the manufacture and IND-enabling preclinical testing of the Profectus trivalent Ebola/Marburg vaccine. [More]
UAlberta researchers discover link between pulmonary hypertension, diabetes and cancer

UAlberta researchers discover link between pulmonary hypertension, diabetes and cancer

A UAlberta team has discovered that a protein that plays a critical role in metabolism, the process by which the cell generates energy from foods, is important for the development of pulmonary hypertension, a deadly disease. [More]
Specific complex carbohydrates in human milk protect against Norovirus

Specific complex carbohydrates in human milk protect against Norovirus

Norovirus is the most common cause of viral epidemic gastroenteritis. About 18% of all gastroenteritis infections are caused by Norovirus affecting 267 million people worldwide every year. According to information of the Robert Koch-Institute more than 200.000 Norovirus-infections were registered in Germany during 2012 and 2013. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report up to 21 million Norovirus-infections per year in the USA. [More]
Research shows that copper could help to prevent Ebola spread

Research shows that copper could help to prevent Ebola spread

Research from the University of Southampton has indicated that copper could help to prevent the spread of Ebola. [More]
Four ACS members named recipients of ACS/Pfizer Surgical Humanitarian and Volunteerism Awards

Four ACS members named recipients of ACS/Pfizer Surgical Humanitarian and Volunteerism Awards

Earlier this evening, four members of the American College of Surgeons were named recipients of the 2014 ACS/Pfizer Surgical Humanitarian and Volunteerism Awards in recognition of their selfless efforts as volunteer surgeons who provide care to medically underserved patients, domestically and abroad. [More]
Illicit drug use, tourism contribute to elevated HIV/AIDS risk in the Dominican Republic

Illicit drug use, tourism contribute to elevated HIV/AIDS risk in the Dominican Republic

The Caribbean has the second highest global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in the world outside of Sub-Saharan Africa, with HIV/AIDS as leading cause of death among people aged 20–59 years within the region. Particularly hard-hit are the Dominican Republic (DR) and Haiti, on the island of Hispaniola, accounting for approximately 70% of all people living with HIV in the Caribbean region. [More]
WUSM researchers sequence genome of enterovirus D68 samples from patients

WUSM researchers sequence genome of enterovirus D68 samples from patients

Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have sequenced the genome of enterovirus D68 sampled from patients treated at St. Louis Children's Hospital. Nationwide, the virus has spread rapidly in recent months and caused severe respiratory illness in young children, with some patients requiring hospitalization. [More]
'Mentor Mothers' program improves perinatal health outcomes in South Africa

'Mentor Mothers' program improves perinatal health outcomes in South Africa

The incidence of HIV infection in South Africa tops that of any nation in the world, with some 6 million of the country's nearly 50 million residents infected. Sadly, young women — and particularly young pregnant women — suffer some of the highest rates of HIV infection. More than one-fourth of pregnant South African women are infected with the virus; in some communities, the infection rates are even higher. [More]
UCLA scientists find link between gigaxonin protein and HPV-positive head and neck cancers

UCLA scientists find link between gigaxonin protein and HPV-positive head and neck cancers

UCLA scientists have discovered for the first time that a protein usually linked to rare neurological disorders is also associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) positive head and neck cancers. The protein was also shown to help improve the effectiveness of chemotherapy treatments, laying the groundwork for the development of more specialized therapies. [More]
CHOP, Temple University to jointly investigate new methods for eradicating HIV

CHOP, Temple University to jointly investigate new methods for eradicating HIV

The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and Temple University have received a joint $4.3 million, four-year grant from the National Institute of Mental Health to investigate new methods to eradicate HIV that lurks in brain cells despite conventional antiviral treatments. [More]
Imaxio awarded ANR funding to improve efficacy of vaccines for seasonal influenza

Imaxio awarded ANR funding to improve efficacy of vaccines for seasonal influenza

Imaxio, a biopharmaceutical company specialized in vaccines, today announces that it has been awarded funding of EUR 600,000 (USD 772,000) by the French National Research Agency (Agence Nationale de la Recherche, ANR) for the OPTIVAC project 'leveraging On t-cell immune resPonse To Improve influenza VACcines'. [More]
Johns Hopkins to lead, design interactive Web-based Ebola training program

Johns Hopkins to lead, design interactive Web-based Ebola training program

Johns Hopkins Medicine has been tasked by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to lead a group and to design an interactive Web-based learning program that guides health care workers, nurses and physicians through government-approved protocols to aid clinicians as they provide care to patients who may be at risk of contracting the Ebola virus. [More]
Salk Institute scientists identify promising target for HIV/AIDS treatment

Salk Institute scientists identify promising target for HIV/AIDS treatment

Like a slumbering dragon, HIV can lay dormant in a person's cells for years, evading medical treatments only to wake up and strike at a later time, quickly replicating itself and destroying the immune system. [More]
Rewriting the family history of Ebola

Rewriting the family history of Ebola

The research shows that filoviruses — a family to which Ebola and its similarly lethal relative, Marburg, belong — are at least 16-23 million years old. [More]
Tiny nano-sized particles may play major role in detecting, tracking breast cancer

Tiny nano-sized particles may play major role in detecting, tracking breast cancer

Exosomes, tiny, virus-sized particles released by cancer cells, can bioengineer micro-RNA (miRNA) molecules resulting in tumor growth. They do so with the help of proteins, such as one named Dicer. New research from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center suggests Dicer may also serve as a biomarker for breast cancer and possibly open up new avenues for diagnosis and treatment. [More]
Researchers to explore new treatment strategies using blood plasma from Ebola survivors

Researchers to explore new treatment strategies using blood plasma from Ebola survivors

The University of Liverpool is part of an international research team that will assess whether the blood or plasma of Ebola survivors can be used to treat Ebola patients in West Africa. [More]
US hospitals lack infection prevention staff, resources to fight Ebola

US hospitals lack infection prevention staff, resources to fight Ebola

Only 6 percent of U.S. hospitals are well-prepared to receive a patient with the Ebola virus, according to a survey of infection prevention experts at U.S. hospitals conducted October 10-15 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC). [More]
Longer looks: Obamacare in the midterm campaign; watching Ebola mutate; lessons on dying

Longer looks: Obamacare in the midterm campaign; watching Ebola mutate; lessons on dying

According to Kantar Media, a firm that tracks political advertising, health care is the main subject of campaign ads, especially Republican ones. Obamacare is unpopular-;over half of Americans disapprove of it. Republicans talk about it constantly on the campaign trail, though not as intemperately as they did during their own party's primaries. Democrats scarcely mention it (10/18). [More]