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A virus is a microscopic infectious agent that can reproduce only inside a host cell. Viruses infect all types of organisms: from animals and plants, to bacteria and archaea. Since the initial discovery of tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, more than 5,000 types of virus have been described in detail, although most types of virus remain undiscovered. Viruses are ubiquitous, as they are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth, and are the most abundant type of biological entity on the planet. The study of viruses is known as virology, and is a branch of microbiology.
HIV-infected adults with MDD more likely to experience heart attack, study shows

HIV-infected adults with MDD more likely to experience heart attack, study shows

Among more than 26,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, those with major depressive disorder (MDD) were more likely to experience a heart attack than those without MDD, according to a study published online by JAMA Cardiology. [More]
Malformations in the brains of fetuses caused by Zika virus go beyond microcephaly

Malformations in the brains of fetuses caused by Zika virus go beyond microcephaly

A recent study published by Brazilian researchers from the D'Or Institute for Research and Education, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Institute for Research Professor Amorim Neto, alongside Tel Aviv University and the Boston Children's Hospital in the US, indicates that microcephaly, a very usual feature in cases of Zika virus gestational infection, is just one of several observed brain changes. [More]
New study may offer vital clues to understanding how Zika virus affects the developing brain

New study may offer vital clues to understanding how Zika virus affects the developing brain

In a very severe, genetic form of microcephaly, stem cells in the brain fail to divide, according to a new Columbia University Medical Center study that may provide important clues to understanding how the Zika virus affects the developing brain. [More]
New chemical compound could potentially be used to treat Ebola virus infection

New chemical compound could potentially be used to treat Ebola virus infection

Scientists have found Ebola's Achilles' heel: a new kind of chemical compound can block the protein Ebola uses to break out of cells and infect new cells. [More]
Cloned Zika virus could be used for development of attenuated vaccine

Cloned Zika virus could be used for development of attenuated vaccine

Stopping the explosive spread of Zika virus - which can lead to birth defects in babies born to infected mothers - depends on genetic insights gleaned through new tools and models. [More]
Low selenium levels linked to liver cancer risk? An interview with Dr David Hughes

Low selenium levels linked to liver cancer risk? An interview with Dr David Hughes

Food provides us with a variety of substances we need to maintain life. These substances are essential nutrients and are classified as macronutrients (water, protein, fats, and carbohydrates) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals). [More]
Genekam develops first therapeutic molecule candidate for Zika viruses

Genekam develops first therapeutic molecule candidate for Zika viruses

GenekamBiotechnology AG, which developed the first test for Zika virus detection in January 2016, has developed as one of first company in the world the therapeutic molecule candidate for Zika viruses, which is likely to be the first potential candidate for Zika-virus therapy. [More]
Neuroscientists demonstrate revolutionary new way of mapping the brain at single-neuron resolution

Neuroscientists demonstrate revolutionary new way of mapping the brain at single-neuron resolution

Neuroscientists today publish in Neuron details of a revolutionary new way of mapping the brain at the resolution of individual neurons, which they have successfully demonstrated in the mouse brain. [More]
Added benefit of combination drug for HIV-infected patients not proven

Added benefit of combination drug for HIV-infected patients not proven

The drug combination emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide is approved in combination with other antiviral agents for the treatment of adults and adolescents infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). [More]
Early-life infections may be risk factor for developmental disorders later in life

Early-life infections may be risk factor for developmental disorders later in life

The Zika virus now active in numerous countries, and the severe birth defects associated with it, makes it clear that infection in pregnant women can have immediate and devastating effects on the developing baby. [More]
Many parents support HPV vaccine school-entry requirements with opt-out provisions

Many parents support HPV vaccine school-entry requirements with opt-out provisions

Requiring students to get vaccinated against the human papillomavirus, or HPV, to enter school could prevent many cancers linked to the virus, but University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill researchers found that many parents only support such requirements with opt-out provisions that could make the laws less effective. [More]
Fruit fly models may help scientists understand underlying mechanism of HPV-induced cancer

Fruit fly models may help scientists understand underlying mechanism of HPV-induced cancer

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in the United States and has been identified as a primary cause of cervical cancer in women. [More]
Yale study provides insight into how Zika virus may be transmitted from pregnant mother to fetus

Yale study provides insight into how Zika virus may be transmitted from pregnant mother to fetus

In a new study, Yale researchers demonstrate Zika virus infection of cells derived from human placentas. The research provides insight into how Zika virus may be transmitted from expectant mother to fetus, resulting in infection of the fetal brain. [More]
Common cold virus actually transmitted from camels to humans

Common cold virus actually transmitted from camels to humans

There are four globally endemic human coronaviruses which, together with the better known rhinoviruses, are responsible for causing common colds. Usually, infections with these viruses are harmless to humans. [More]
Mice study finds new approach to halt cycle of chronic inflammation in lupus

Mice study finds new approach to halt cycle of chronic inflammation in lupus

Molecules that scavenge debris from dying cells appear to halt the cycle of chronic inflammation in lupus, while also enhancing the body's ability to combat flu, according to Duke Health studies in mice. [More]
Researchers find potential way to reduce effects of TBI with neuron-targeting nanoparticle

Researchers find potential way to reduce effects of TBI with neuron-targeting nanoparticle

A fall down the stairs, a car crash, a sports injury or an explosive blast can all cause traumatic brain injury (TBI). [More]
Large emergency vaccination campaigns to curb yellow fever outbreak in Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo

Large emergency vaccination campaigns to curb yellow fever outbreak in Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo

One of the largest emergency vaccination campaigns ever attempted in Africa will start in Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo this week as WHO and partners work to curb a yellow fever outbreak that has killed more than 400 people and sickened thousands more. [More]
Mexican scientists develop micro valve to decrease microcephaly effects in developing fetus

Mexican scientists develop micro valve to decrease microcephaly effects in developing fetus

Microcephaly is a condition in which a decreased size in the skull of fetuses or babies occurs, preventing the full development of his brain. [More]
Researchers explain why secondary infection with MRSA kills influenza patients

Researchers explain why secondary infection with MRSA kills influenza patients

Researchers have discovered that secondary infection with the Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacterium (or "superbug") often kills influenza patients because the flu virus alters the antibacterial response of white blood cells, causing them to damage the patients' lungs instead of destroying the bacterium. [More]
NIH funds collaborative project to develop better vaccine adjuvants for many diseases

NIH funds collaborative project to develop better vaccine adjuvants for many diseases

Dr. Qizhi Cathy Yao, professor of surgery, molecular virology and microbiology, and pathology & immunology at Baylor College of Medicine, has been awarded a National Institutes of Health grant to fund a collaborative project with Molecular Express, Inc. [More]
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