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A virus is a microscopic infectious agent that can reproduce only inside a host cell. Viruses infect all types of organisms: from animals and plants, to bacteria and archaea. Since the initial discovery of tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, more than 5,000 types of virus have been described in detail, although most types of virus remain undiscovered. Viruses are ubiquitous, as they are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth, and are the most abundant type of biological entity on the planet. The study of viruses is known as virology, and is a branch of microbiology.
Dry powdered measles vaccine triggers no adverse side effects in early human testing

Dry powdered measles vaccine triggers no adverse side effects in early human testing

A measles vaccine made of fine dry powder and delivered with a puff of air triggered no adverse side effects in early human testing and it is likely effective, according to a paper to be published November 28 in the journal Vaccine. [More]
Jhpiego, SAGO partner to expand Ebola preparedness training across West Africa

Jhpiego, SAGO partner to expand Ebola preparedness training across West Africa

Jhpiego is partnering with the Society of African Gynecologists and Obstetricians to expand and reinforce Ebola preparedness training for frontline health workers across West Africa in the event the virus outbreak spreads further in the region. [More]

South Africa's response to Ebola outbreak

Brand South Africa and the Department of Communications yesterday convened a high level discussion with stakeholders on how the country is responding to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. [More]
Six Albert Einstein College of Medicine faculty members selected as AAAS Fellows

Six Albert Einstein College of Medicine faculty members selected as AAAS Fellows

Six faculty members at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University have been named Fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Election as an AAAS Fellow is an honor bestowed upon AAAS members by their peers. This year, 401 members have been awarded this honor by AAAS because of their scientifically or socially distinguished efforts to advance science or its applications. [More]
Study finds that starting ART treatment soon after HIV infection improves immune health

Study finds that starting ART treatment soon after HIV infection improves immune health

HIV-1-infected U.S. military members and beneficiaries treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) soon after infection were half as likely to develop AIDS and were more likely to reconstitute their immune-fighting CD4+ T-cells to normal levels, researchers reported Nov. 24 in JAMA Internal Medicine. [More]
Provider-centered multi-component PI CME intervention improves HPV vaccination rates

Provider-centered multi-component PI CME intervention improves HPV vaccination rates

Changing the way doctors practice medicine is difficult, however a new study has shown that combining traditional education with quality improvement and incentives improves Human Papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination rates in boys and girls. The study, which appears on-line in the journal Vaccine, has the potential to produce sustained improvements in these vaccination rates. [More]
Johns Hopkins researchers develop online tool to speed up creation of new drugs to prevent Ebola virus

Johns Hopkins researchers develop online tool to speed up creation of new drugs to prevent Ebola virus

Johns Hopkins biomedical engineers have developed a free, browser-based online tool that could speed up the creation of new drugs to treat or prevent Ebola virus infections. [More]
Merck, NewLink Genetics sign exclusive worldwide license agreement for Ebola vaccine candidate

Merck, NewLink Genetics sign exclusive worldwide license agreement for Ebola vaccine candidate

Merck, known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, and NewLink Genetics Corporation, announced today that they have entered into an exclusive worldwide license agreement to research, develop, manufacture, and distribute NewLink's investigational rVSV-EBOV (Ebola) vaccine candidate. [More]
Researchers identify way to improve memory by manipulating molecule linked to Alzheimer's

Researchers identify way to improve memory by manipulating molecule linked to Alzheimer's

In a new study conducted by the Sagol Department of Neurobiology at the University of Haifa and published recently in the Journal of Neuroscience, researchers report that they've found a way to improve memory by manipulating a specific molecule that is known to function poorly in old age and is closely linked to Alzheimer's disease. [More]
UCLA creates largest-ever protein that self-assembles into molecular 'cage'

UCLA creates largest-ever protein that self-assembles into molecular 'cage'

UCLA biochemists have created the largest-ever protein that self-assembles into a molecular "cage." The research could lead to synthetic vaccines that protect people from the flu, HIV and other diseases. [More]
Study sheds light on how HIV medications cause significant damage to fetal hearts

Study sheds light on how HIV medications cause significant damage to fetal hearts

A study by a Wayne State University and Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit Medical Center research team is shedding new light on the troubling question of whether the drugs often given to HIV-positive pregnant women can cause significant long-term heart problems for the non-HIV-infected babies they carry. [More]
UTMB researchers receive awards at American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene meeting

UTMB researchers receive awards at American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene meeting

Scientists at the University of Texas Medical Branch were recognized with prestigious awards for their contributions in research at the annual American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene meeting. [More]
Researchers discover a new way to combat influenza virus infection

Researchers discover a new way to combat influenza virus infection

The influenza virus, like all viruses, is a hijacker. It quietly slips its way inside cells, steals the machinery inside to make more copies of itself, and then -- having multiplied -- bursts out of the cell to find others to infect. [More]
Flusurvey to offer self-administered nasal swab to all participants

Flusurvey to offer self-administered nasal swab to all participants

People taking part in this year’s Flusurvey, the UK’s biggest crowd-sourced study of influenza will for the first time be offered a swab to confirm if their symptoms are caused by a flu virus or not as part of a new collaboration with i-sense. Data from social media and internet searches will also be combined with Flusurvey, allowing flu trends to be monitored across the UK more accurately and earlier than ever before. [More]
Gene therapy transforms life for men with severe form of hemophilia B

Gene therapy transforms life for men with severe form of hemophilia B

Gene therapy developed at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, University College London and the Royal Free Hospital has transformed life for men with a severe form of hemophilia B by providing a safe, reliable source of the blood clotting protein Factor IX that has allowed some to adopt a more active lifestyle, researchers reported. [More]
New method could make Ebola surveillance quicker, cheaper for West African nations

New method could make Ebola surveillance quicker, cheaper for West African nations

A new method for examining the Ebola virus genome could make surveillance quicker and cheaper for West African nations, and help detect new forms of the virus. The detailed procedure is being shared with the research community along with the study paper, which is freely available in the open access journal Genome Biology. [More]
Researchers find drug combination that reduces risk of skin graft rejection

Researchers find drug combination that reduces risk of skin graft rejection

A research team bringing together José Cohen and Philippe Grimbert (Inserm Unit 955/Université Paris Est Créteil [UPEC] and the Centre for Clinical Investigation - Biotherapies 504 [CIC-BT 504]), and their collaborators at Institut Curie and AP-HP (George Pompidou European Hospital) has succeeded in finding a combination of drugs that reduces the risk of rejection following a skin graft. [More]
'Spillover' of henipaviruses into humans underway, study finds

'Spillover' of henipaviruses into humans underway, study finds

Another family of viruses, deadly in some cases, may have already jumped from fruit bats into humans in Africa, according to a study published today in the journal Nature Communications. The study provides the first, preliminary scientific evidence that "spillover" of henipaviruses into human populations is underway. [More]

TSRI scientists reveal how ZMapp antibodies target Ebola virus

Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute have identified weak spots on the surface of Ebola virus that are targeted by the antibodies in ZMapp, the experimental drug cocktail administered to several patients during the recent Ebola outbreak. [More]
Scientists find cells responsible for memory problems after sleep loss

Scientists find cells responsible for memory problems after sleep loss

Sleep is a critical period for memory consolidation, and most people don't get enough. Research has shown that even brief periods of sleep deprivation can lead to deficits in memory formation. [More]