The following is a classification of the various types of cataracts. This is not comprehensive and other unusual types may be noted.
- Classified by etiology
- Age-related cataract
- Cortical Senile Cataract
- Immature senile cataract (IMSC): partially opaque lens, disc view hazy
- Mature senile cataract (MSC): Completely opaque lens, no disc view
- Hypermature senile cataract (HMSC): Liquefied cortical matter: Morgagnian cataract
- Senile Nuclear Cataract
- Cataracta brunescens
- cataracta nigra
- cataracta rubra
- Congenital cataract
- Sutural cataract
- Lamellar cataract
- Zonular cataract
- Total cataract
- Secondary cataract
- Drug-induced cataract (e.g. corticosteroids)
- Traumatic cataract
- Blunt trauma (capsule usually intact)
- Penetrating trauma (capsular rupture & leakage of lens material—calls for an emergency surgery for extraction of lens and leaked material to minimize further damage)
- Classified by location of opacity within lens structure (However, mixed morphology is quite commonly seen, e.g. PSC with nuclear changes & cortical spokes of cataract)
- Anterior cortical cataract
- Anterior polar cataract
- Anterior subcapsular cataract
photo of posterior capsular opacification visible a few months after implantation of Intraocular lens in eye, seen on retroillumination]]
- Nuclear cataract—Grading correlates with hardness & difficulty of surgical removal
- 1: Grey
- 2: Yellow
- 3: Amber
- 4: Brown/Black (Note: "black cataract" translated in some languages (like Hindi) refers to glaucoma, not the color of the lens nucleus)
- Posterior cortical cataract
- Posterior polar cataract (importance lies in higher risk of complication—posterior capsular tears during surgery)
- Posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC) (clinically common)
- After-cataract: posterior capsular opacification (PCO) subsequent to a successful extracapsular cataract surgery (usually within three months to two years) with or without IOL implantation. Requires a quick & painless office procedure with YAG laser capsulotomy to restore optical clarity.
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