Limitation of blood flow to the heart causes ischemia (cell starvation secondary to a lack of oxygen) of the myocardial cells. Myocardial cells may die from lack of oxygen and this is called a myocardial infarction (commonly called a heart attack). It leads to heart muscle damage, heart muscle death and later myocardial scarring without heart muscle regrowth. Chronic high-grade stenosis of the coronary arteries can induce transient ischemia which leads to the induction of a ventricular arrhythmia, which may terminate into ventricular fibrillation leading to death.
Myocardial infarction usually results from the sudden occlusion of a coronary artery when a plaque ruptures, activating the clotting system and atheroma-clot interaction fills the lumen of the artery to the point of sudden closure. The narrowing of the lumen of the heart artery before sudden closure is often not severe, according to clinical research completed in the late 1990s and using IVUS examinations within 6 months prior to a heart attack. The events leading up to plaque rupture are not understood despite many theories. Myocardial infarction is almost never caused by temporary spasm of the artery wall occluding the lumen, a condition also associated with atheromatous plaque and CAD.
CAD is associated with smoking, diabetes, and hypertension. A family history of early CAD is one of the less important predictors of CAD. Most of the familial association of coronary artery disease are related to common dietary habits. Screening for CAD includes evaluating high-density and low-density lipoprotein (cholesterol) levels and triglyceride levels. Despite much press, most of the alternative risk factors including homocysteine, C-reactive protein (CRP), Lipoprotein (a), coronary calcium and more sophisticated lipid analysis have added little if any additional value to the conventional risk factors of smoking, diabetes and hypertension.
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"Coronary artery disease"
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