There is theoretical concern that HGH treatment may increase the risks of diabetes, especially in those with other predispositions treated with higher doses. If used for training, growth at a young age (25 or less) can cause severe symptoms. One survey of adults that had been treated with replacement cadaver GH (which has not been used anywhere in the world since 1985) during childhood showed a mildly increased incidence of colon cancer and prostate cancer, but linkage with the GH treatment was not established.
Regular application of extra GH may show several negative side-effects such as joint swelling, joint pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and an increased risk of diabetes. Furthermore, growth hormone from other primates was found to be inactive in humans.
In 1985, unusual cases of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease were found in individuals that had received cadaver-derived HGH ten to fifteen years previously. Based on the assumption that infectious prions causing the disease were transferred along with the cadaver-derived HGH, cadaver-derived HGH was removed from the market.
In 1985, biosynthetic human growth hormone replaced pituitary-derived human growth hormone for therapeutic use in the U.S. and elsewhere.
As of 2005, recombinant growth hormones available in the United States (and their manufacturers) included Nutropin (Genentech), Humatrope (Lilly), Genotropin (Pfizer), Norditropin (Novo), and Saizen (Merck Serono). In 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Association (FDA) approved a version of rhGH called Omnitrope (Sandoz). A sustained-release form of growth hormone, Nutropin Depot (Genentech and Alkermes) was approved by the FDA in 1999, allowing for fewer injections (every 2 or 4 weeks instead of daily); however, the product was discontinued in 2004.
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