Renal failure or kidney failure (formerly called renal insufficiency or chronic renal insufficiency) is a situation in which the kidneys fail to function adequately.
There are two forms: acute (acute kidney injury) and chronic (chronic kidney disease); either form may be due to a large number of other medical problems.
Biochemically, it is typically detected by an elevated serum creatinine. In the science of physiology, renal failure is described as a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate.
When the kidneys malfunction, problems frequently encountered are abnormal fluid levels in the body, deranged acid levels, abnormal levels of potassium, calcium, phosphate, hematuria (blood in the urine) and (in the longer term) anemia.
Long-term kidney problems have significant repercussions on other diseases, such as cardiovascular disease.
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