Damage to the blood vessel wall by angioplasty triggers physiological response that can be divided into two stages.
The first stage that occurs immediately after tissue trauma, is thrombosis. A blood clot forms at the site of damage and further hinders blood flow. This is accompanied by an inflammatory immune response.
The second stage tends to occur 3–6 months after surgery and is the result of proliferation of cells in the intima, a smooth muscle wall in the vessel. This is also known as Neointimal hyperplasia (NIHA)
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