Patients with thalassemia minor usually do not require any specific treatment. Treatment for patients with thalassemia major includes chronic blood transfusion therapy, iron chelation, splenectomy, and allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation.
Medical therapy for beta thalassemia primarily involves iron chelation. Deferoxamine is the intravenously administered chelation agent currently approved for use in the United States. Deferasirox (Exjade) is an oral iron chelation drug also approved in the US in 2005.
The antioxidant indicaxanthin, found in beets, in a spectrophotometric study showed that indicaxanthin can reduce perferryl-Hb generated in solution from met-Hb and hydrogen peroxide, more effectively than either Trolox or Vitamin C. Collectively, results demonstrate that indicaxanthin can be incorporated into the redox machinery of β-thalassemic RBC and defend the cell from oxidation, possibly interfering with perferryl-Hb, a reactive intermediate in the hydroperoxide-dependent Hb degradation.
- A screening policy exists in Cyprus to reduce the incidence of thalassemia, which since the program's implementation in the 1970s (which also includes pre-natal screening and abortion) has reduced the number of children born with the hereditary blood disease from 1 out of every 158 births to almost zero.
- In Iran as a premarital screening, the man's red cell indices are checked first, if he has microcytosis (mean cell haemoglobin < 27 pg or mean red cell volume < 80 fl), the woman is tested. When both are microcytic their haemoglobin A2 concentrations are measured. If both have a concentration above 3.5% (diagnostic of thalassaemia trait) they are referred to the local designated health post for genetic counseling.
In 2008, in Spain, a baby was selectively implanted in order to be a cure for his brother's thalassemia. The child was born from an embryo screened to be free of the disease before implantation with In vitro fertilization. The baby's supply of immunocompatible cord blood was saved for transplantation to his brother. The transplantation was considered successful.
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