Typhoid fever, also known as ''Salmonella typhi" or commonly just typhoid, is a common worldwide illness, transmitted by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person. The bacteria then perforate through the intestinal wall and are phagocytosed by macrophages.
The organism is a Gram-negative short bacillus that is motile due to its peritrichous flagella. The bacterium grows best at – human body temperature.
This fever received various names, such as gastric fever, abdominal typhus, infantile remittant fever, slow fever, nervous fever, pythogenic fever, etc. The name of " typhoid " was given by Louis in 1829, as a derivative from typhus.
The impact of this disease falls sharply with the application of modern sanitation techniques.
With an estimated 16–33 million cases of annually resulting in 216,000
deaths in endemic areas, the World Health Organization identifies
typhoid as a serious public health problem. Its incidence is highest in
children and young adults between 5 and 19 years old.
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