Chromosome 5 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome.
Chromosome 5 spans about 181 million base pairs (the building blocks of DNA) and represents almost 6% of the total DNA in cells. Chromosome 5 is one of the largest human chromosomes, yet has one of the lowest gene densities. This is partially explained by numerous gene-poor regions that display a remarkable degree of non-coding and syntenic conservation with non-mammalian vertebrates, suggesting they are functionally constrained. [http://genome.jgi-psf.org/chr5/chr5.home.html]
Chromosone 5 contains approximately 1700 genes
and approximately 180 million base pairs, of which over 95% have been determined. Image Credit: NIH
Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. Chromosome 5 likely contains between 900 and 1,300 genes.
The following are some of the genes located on chromosome 5:
- ADAMTS2: ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 2
- APC: adenomatosis polyposis coli
- EGR1: early growth response protein 1
- DTDST: diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter
- ERCC8: excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency, complementation group 8
- FGFR4: fibroblast growth factor receptor 4
- GM2A: GM2 ganglioside activator
- HEXB: hexosaminidase B (beta polypeptide)
- MASS1: monogenic, audiogenic seizure susceptibility 1 homolog (mouse)
- MCCC2: methylcrotonoyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase 2 (beta)
- MTRR: 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase
- NIPBL: Nipped-B homolog (Drosophila)
- NSD1: Transcription coregulator protein
- Pikachurin: Responsible for the functioning of the ribbon synapses; allows the eye to track moving objects
- SLC22A5: solute carrier family 22 (organic cation transporter), member 5
- SLC26A2: solute carrier family 26 (sulfate transporter), member 2
- SMN1: survival motor neuron 1, telomeric
- SMN2: survival motor neuron 2, centromeric
- SNCAIP: synuclein, alpha interacting protein (synphilin)
- TGFBI: keratoepithelin
- TCOF1: Treacher Collins-Franceschetti syndrome 1
- FGF1: fibroblast growth factor 1 (acidic fibroblast growth factor)
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