We all know what goes on in prison. Or do we? A study examining sexual behaviour and sexual culture in jails in NSW and Queensland suggests that popular beliefs about prison sex are largely myths.
Contrary to portrayals of jails as sexually rampant places, a survey by the University of New South Wales (UNSW) found only 7% of male prisoners had had sex with another prisoner, while for female prisoners the number was higher at around one-third. And when sex did happen it was overwhelmingly consensual.
“Sexual coercion seems to be a disappearing phenomenon in prisons,” said co-author of the study, Professor Basil Donovan, who is head of the Sexual Health Program at UNSW’s Kirby Institute*.
“Only 2.5% of male prisoners and 3.9% of female prisoners reported that they had been forced or frightened into unwanted sexual activity. For almost half of those who reported coercion, this had only occurred once and for some the event dated back decades.
“With 60% of women and 13% of the men reporting sexual coercion – including rape – prior to their imprisonment, our evidence suggests that these people are at less risk of sexual coercion and rape inside prison than outside,” Professor Donovan said.
“The reasons for sexual coercion fading out of prisons probably reflects a much improved prison culture, more sympathetic management applying the principle of duty-of care, fewer prisoners per cell, and video surveillance,” he said.
This did not mean that misapprehensions about prison sex were trivial.
“Men and women who are about to be imprisoned fear what will happen, with about a third believing they will be sexually assaulted in prison,” said the study’s lead author, Professor Tony Butler, head of the Justice Health Program at the Kirby Institute.
“Defence lawyers regularly use ‘rampant’ prison rape as an argument for their clients to avoid custodial sentences. And the NSW Department of Corrective Services has supplied 30,000 condoms a month to prisoners since 1996 as part of their perceived duty-of-care.”
As part of the survey, researchers questioned representative samples of 900 men and 134 women in 14 Queensland prisons and 1,118 men and 199 women in 28 NSW prisons. (The states were selected because NSW prisons distribute condoms and dental dams while Queensland does not).
Of the 7% of men who had engaged in sex, most (79%) said they did it for pleasure (for the majority sex was only occasional and did not involve anal intercourse), while 15% said they did it to garner protection. Only rarely did male prisoners have sex in return for drugs (2%) or other goods (4%). Interestingly, 10 of the 26 men who identified as gay reported having no sex while in prison.
Female prisoners were much more sexually active: 36% reported sex with other inmates, with oral sex involved in about 60% of encounters.
Professor Donovan said with so little anal sex occurring in male prisons, sex cannot account for the use of 30,000 condoms a month in NSW jails. So, what happens to all those condoms and dams?
“Before condoms were introduced into NSW prisons there were strong objections by prison officers who thought that they might encourage more sex and rape, or be used as weapons. These predictions were wrong,” Professor Donovan said.
“The uses of condoms are varied. Some are liberated of their lubricant to be used as hair gel, others are used as household ties or masturbatory aids.
“Dental dams in women’s prisons are rarely used for oral sex. Instead they are reborn as tobacco pouches, hair bands, and doilies.”
A paper based on the research appears in the Journal of Interpersonal Violence. A second paper is published in the magazine HIV Australia this month.
Collaborating in the research were the Sexual Health Program and the Justice Health Program of the Kirby Institute, and UNSW’s School of Public Health and Community Medicine. Funding was provided by the NHMRC with additional resources from the NSW Health Department, Queensland Corrective Services, NSW Justice Health, UNSW Faculty of Medicine, and the National Drug Research Institute.
*Name change for NCHECR
The National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research has become The Kirby Institute for infection and immunity in society, a change designed to reflect the organisation’s broad commitment to a range of infectious diseases affecting marginalised and disadvantaged Australian communities. The Kirby Institute is a research centre of the University of New South Wales.
Who we spoke to
We surveyed representative samples of 900 men and 134 women in 14 Queensland prisons and 1162 men and 201 women in 28 NSW prisons, with very high response rates. The full reports are available in two monographs at http://www.sphcm.med.unsw.edu.au/SPHCMWeb.nsf/page/ProjSexual.
Prison inmates are much less educated and tend to come from poorer socio-economic areas than the general population. Between one in four and one in five prisoners were from an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander background. Overall prisoners reported a younger average age of sexual debut, more engagement in sex work, more sexual partners, and more STIs in their past than the general population.
Sexual identity, attraction, and experience
Overwhelmingly male inmates saw themselves as heterosexual or straight (95.1%), while few saw themselves as bisexual (3.1%), homosexual (1.3%) or unsure (0.5%). That said, 8.3% had at least occasionally felt some attraction to a man and 12.9% reported at least some past same-sex contact. By contrast, only 63% of female inmates described themselves as heterosexual, 29% as bisexual, 7% as lesbian, and 1% as ‘other’.
Sexual attitudes and STI knowledge
In the main, prisoners share similar attitudes toward sexual matters with the general population, with two notable exceptions. Male prisoners were three times more likely and female prisoners were almost twice as likely as the general population to agree with the statement “Abortion is wrong”. Male prisoners were twice as likely (61%) to agree with the statement “Sex between men is always wrong” than men in the community. Male prisons are very homophobic environments. Despite their much lower educational levels, prisoners’ responses to knowledge questions about STIs did not differ greatly from the general population.
Sex in prison
Contrary to what you see on TV, only 7.1% of male prisoners reported any sex with another inmate and for more than a half this was only occasional and did not involve anal intercourse. Mostly (79%) they had sex for pleasure, sometimes (15%) for protection, and rarely for drugs (2%) or other goods (4%). Interestingly, 10 of the 26 men who identified as gay did not report any sex in prison. By contrast, women prisoners were much more sexually active: 36% reported sex with other inmates, with oral sex involved in about 60% of encounters. Home-made dildos were common and were often shared.
Sexual coercion in prison
Sexual coercion was a disappearing rare event in prisons. Only 2.5% of male prisoners and 3.9% of female prisoners reported that they had been forced or frightened into unwanted sexual activity in prison. For almost a half this had only occurred once and for some the event dated back decades.
Indeed, our evidence suggests that these people may be at less risk of sexual coercion and rape inside prison than outside. The reasons for sexual coercion fading out of prisons probably reflects a much improved prison culture, more sympathetic management applying the principle of duty-of care, fewer prisoners per cell, and video surveillance.
So what happens to the condoms and dams?
Before condoms were to be introduced into NSW prisons there were strong objections by prison officers who thought that they might encourage more sex and rape or be used as weapons. In brief, these predictions were wrong. That said, there is so little anal sex in male prisons that sex cannot account for the consumption of 30,000 condoms a month. It seems they are used as household ties or masturbatory aids or the accompanying sachet of lubricant is sometimes used as hair gel. As in the community, dental dams in women’s prisons are rarely used for oral sex. Instead they are reborn as tobacco pouches, hair bands, and doilies.