Being overweight or obese in adolescence increases a person's risk for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in later life, report researchers.
Their study showed that high body mass index (BMI) in adolescence is associated with the development of both diabetic and nondiabetic ESRD.
In a retrospective analysis of 1,194,704 Israeli adolescents, aged a mean of 17.4 years, who underwent health examinations for military service between 1967 and 1997, the team linked health data to the Israeli ESRD registry, which holds information on any patients receiving treatment for ESRD between 1980 and 2010.
As reported in the Archives of Internal Medicine, the incidence of treated ESRD was significantly increased among individuals who were overweight (BMI 24.90-28.19 kg/m2 for boys and 25.20-29.59 kg/m2 for girls) or obese (BMI 28.20-40.00 kg/m2 for boys and 29.60-40.00 kg/m2 for girls) during adolescence, compared with those of normal weight (BMI 17.71-24.89 kg/m2 for boys and 17.21-25.19 kg/m2 for girls).
Incidences of all-cause treated ESRD among those who were underweight and normal-weight as adolescents were similar, at 2.30 and 2.32 per 100,000 person-years, respectively, but increased in both overweight and obese categories, at 6.08 and 13.40 per 100,000 person-years, respectively.
Compared with the normal-weight individuals, the overweight and obese were at significant 3.0- and 6.9-fold greater risks for all-cause treated ESRD, respectively, after adjustment for gender, country of origin, systolic blood pressure, and period of enrollment in the study.
Overweight adolescents also had a significant sixfold increased risk for diabetic ESRD, while obese adolescents had a 19-fold greater risk. Furthermore, overweight and obesity in adolescence were associated with a 2.17- and 3.41-fold greater risk, respectively, for nondiabetic ESRD.
"Demonstrating the association of ESRD with elevated BMI in adolescence may allow early detection during childhood," write Asaf Vivante (Sheba Medical Center, Tel HaShomer, Israel) and colleagues.
"While this association does not prove causation, the finding highlights another possible benefit in the urgent need to address childhood and adolescent obesity as possible modifiable risk factors," they add.
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