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Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms new cells as you need them, replacing old cells that die. Sometimes this process goes wrong. New cells grow even when you don't need them, and old cells don't die when they should. These extra cells can form a mass called a tumor. Tumors can be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors can invade nearby tissues. They can also break away and spread to other parts of the body.

Most cancers are named for where they start. For example, lung cancer starts in the lung, and breast cancer starts in the breast. The spread of cancer from one part of the body to another is called metastasis. Symptoms and treatment depend on the cancer type and how advanced it is. Treatment plans may include surgery, radiation and/or chemotherapy.
Five researchers named winners of 2016 Elsevier Foundation Awards

Five researchers named winners of 2016 Elsevier Foundation Awards

Five researchers have been named winners of the 2016 Elsevier Foundation Awards for Early Career Women Scientists in the Developing World, in recognition of research that has strong potential health and economic benefits. [More]
Pediatric ALL patients treated with chemotherapy alone at risk for neurocognitive deficits

Pediatric ALL patients treated with chemotherapy alone at risk for neurocognitive deficits

Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients treated with chemotherapy alone remain at risk for attention and learning problems that persist after treatment ends, according to St. Jude Children's Research Hospital investigators. [More]
Helpful protein can change genetic sequence of normal cells and make mutations that cause cancers

Helpful protein can change genetic sequence of normal cells and make mutations that cause cancers

Washington State University researchers have determined how a protein that helps cells fight viruses can also cause genetic mutations that lead to cancer. [More]
2D-NMR could be a powerful complementary technique for assessing biosimilarity of protein drugs

2D-NMR could be a powerful complementary technique for assessing biosimilarity of protein drugs

A first-ever interlaboratory study of four versions of a therapeutic protein drug—all manufactured from living cells—reports that an established analytical tool akin to magnetic resonance imaging reliably assessed the atomic structures of the biologically similar products, yielding the equivalent of a fingerprint for each. [More]
Oral therapeutic drug shows promise against recurrent C. difficile infection

Oral therapeutic drug shows promise against recurrent C. difficile infection

Results from a Phase 1b/2 trial suggest that an investigational microbiome-based, oral therapeutic drug is effective for the treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection. In a paper published online in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, a multi-institutional research team reports that treatment with the preparation, containing the spores of approximately 50 species of beneficial bacteria, successfully prevented recurrence of C. difficile infection (CDI) in patients with a history of multiple recurrent disease. [More]
Simple change in diet could boost vitamin D levels for people suffering from Type 2 diabetes

Simple change in diet could boost vitamin D levels for people suffering from Type 2 diabetes

A simple change in diet could boost vitamin D levels for millions of Americans suffering from Type 2 diabetes, according to new research from Iowa State University published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. [More]
Structural movie reveals step-by-step creation of chemical that plays important role in some cancers

Structural movie reveals step-by-step creation of chemical that plays important role in some cancers

An international team of scientists led by the University of Liverpool has produced a 'structural movie' revealing the step-by-step creation of an important naturally occurring chemical in the body that plays a role in some cancers. [More]
Temple team describes use of cadaver DNA to advance genetics learning in medical curriculum

Temple team describes use of cadaver DNA to advance genetics learning in medical curriculum

Cadavers have long been one of the most important resources for anatomy teaching in medical school. Now, they are also at the forefront of cutting-edge genetics teaching, thanks to innovative thinking by professors at the Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University. [More]
U of A researchers use ultrashort laser pulses to connect neurons

U of A researchers use ultrashort laser pulses to connect neurons

A research team based in the University of Alberta Faculty of Engineering has developed a method of connecting neurons, using ultrashort laser pulses--a breakthrough technique that opens the door to new medical research and treatment opportunities. [More]
FDA requests $5.1 billion budget for FY 2017 to protect and promote public health

FDA requests $5.1 billion budget for FY 2017 to protect and promote public health

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is requesting a total budget of $5.1 billion to protect and promote the public health as part of the President's fiscal year (FY) 2017 budget – an eight percent increase over the enacted budget for FY 2016. [More]
Cancer patients who miss scheduled radiation therapy appointments have worse outcomes

Cancer patients who miss scheduled radiation therapy appointments have worse outcomes

Cancer patients who miss two or more radiation therapy sessions have a worse outcome than fully compliant patients, investigators at Montefiore Einstein Center for Cancer Care and Albert Einstein College of Medicine's NCI-designated Albert Einstein Cancer Center have found. [More]
Researchers find new mutation signature in cancer cells

Researchers find new mutation signature in cancer cells

Mutations are the replacement of DNA bases known as Adenine (A), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G) and Thymine (T) with other bases. When mutations such as C to T or G to A are found within a specific DNA sequence, this is known as a mutation signature. [More]
Study reveals link between genomic instability, aneuploidy and cancer

Study reveals link between genomic instability, aneuploidy and cancer

A recent analysis of 43,205 human tumours unveiled that 68% of solid tumours are aneuploid, that is to say, they have an altered number of chromosomes. In recent years, scientists have attempted to clarify whether this aneuploidy contributes to tumour development or whether it is a co-lateral effect of the genomic instability of cancer cells, which increase the rate of mutations and the likelihood of cancer. [More]
Some heart disease drugs, antibiotics show promising perspectives in treating cancers

Some heart disease drugs, antibiotics show promising perspectives in treating cancers

North American researchers have identified drugs that showed promising perspectives in treating cancers, according to a recent study published in Cancer Research. [More]
New technique allows better understanding of cellular stress reaction

New technique allows better understanding of cellular stress reaction

Stress in the body's cells is both the cause and consequence of inflammatory diseases or cancer. The cells react to stress to protect themselves. Researchers at the University of Zurich have now developed a new technique that allows studying a fundamental response to stress in much more detail than previously possible: the ADP-ribosylation of chromatin. [More]
UC San Diego School of Medicine launches new NAFLD Research Center

UC San Diego School of Medicine launches new NAFLD Research Center

Roughly one-quarter of all Americans - an estimated 100 million adults and children - have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a chronic condition that can lead to cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure. [More]
Abnormal breakage of chromosomes in white blood cells triggers aggressive form of ALL

Abnormal breakage of chromosomes in white blood cells triggers aggressive form of ALL

A research team led by St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists has discovered details of how the abnormal breakage and rearrangement of chromosomes in white blood cells triggers a particularly aggressive form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Such leukemias are cancers of white blood cells, in which genetic mutations trigger overproduction of immature cells, called lymphoblasts. [More]
Implantable device could help deliver toxic cocktail of drugs directly to pancreatic tumors

Implantable device could help deliver toxic cocktail of drugs directly to pancreatic tumors

A highly lethal cancer sometimes requires large doses of highly toxic drugs. However, a blitzkrieg approach can be unfeasible for some patients due to severe side effects. Now a powerhouse team of researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has revealed that an implantable device can deliver a particularly toxic cocktail of drugs directly to pancreatic tumors to stunt their growth or in some cases, shrink them - all while showing signs that the rest of the body would be spared toxic side effects. [More]
UM SOM researchers reveal genetic makeup of various strains of E. coli

UM SOM researchers reveal genetic makeup of various strains of E. coli

A multi-disciplinary group of researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine have for the first time determined the genetic makeup of various strains of E. coli, which every year kills hundreds of thousands of people around the world. [More]
Experimental nanoparticle therapy shows promise for fighting primary liver cancer

Experimental nanoparticle therapy shows promise for fighting primary liver cancer

An experimental nanoparticle therapy that combines low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and fish oil preferentially kills primary liver cancer cells without harming healthy cells, UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers report. [More]
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