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Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms new cells as you need them, replacing old cells that die. Sometimes this process goes wrong. New cells grow even when you don't need them, and old cells don't die when they should. These extra cells can form a mass called a tumor. Tumors can be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors can invade nearby tissues. They can also break away and spread to other parts of the body.

Most cancers are named for where they start. For example, lung cancer starts in the lung, and breast cancer starts in the breast. The spread of cancer from one part of the body to another is called metastasis. Symptoms and treatment depend on the cancer type and how advanced it is. Treatment plans may include surgery, radiation and/or chemotherapy.
Research describes how gene BRCA1 plays vital role in DNA repair

Research describes how gene BRCA1 plays vital role in DNA repair

Scientists at the University of Birmingham are a step closer to understanding the role of the gene BRCA1. Changes in this gene are associated with a high risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer. [More]
Researchers identify new genetic drivers of adrenal cancer

Researchers identify new genetic drivers of adrenal cancer

Cancer researchers in Würzburg, in cooperation with the international Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network, have identified new genetic drivers of adrenal cancer. Würzburg was the center of coordination of the European scientists. [More]
Oncologists combine two different types of immunotherapy to successfully treat metastatic melanoma

Oncologists combine two different types of immunotherapy to successfully treat metastatic melanoma

Oncologists at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center have successfully treated a patient with metastatic melanoma by combining two different types of immunotherapy. Cassian Yee and colleagues describe their approach in a paper, "Combined IL-21-primed polyclonal CTL plus CTLA4 blockade controls refractory metastatic melanoma in a patient," that will be published online May 30 in The Journal of Experimental Medicine. [More]
Initiatives to improve adolescent, young adult cancer outcomes justified

Initiatives to improve adolescent, young adult cancer outcomes justified

Analysis of the EUROCARE-5 data shows that although survival for adolescents and young adults with cancer has improved overall, the survival rates for certain malignancies still lag behind those for children. [More]
European cardiovascular prevention guidelines emphasise population approaches

European cardiovascular prevention guidelines emphasise population approaches

The European Society of Cardiology has updated its cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines to include, for the first time, population approaches to be implemented by legislators, schools and workplaces. [More]
Oncologists to present latest research findings at ASCO annual meeting

Oncologists to present latest research findings at ASCO annual meeting

Oncologists from NewYork-Presbyterian, Columbia University Medical Center and Weill Cornell Medicine will discuss their latest research findings at the American Society for Clinical Oncology annual meeting, June 3-7 in Chicago. [More]
Surrogate endpoints for cancer drug approval often lack formal empirical verification

Surrogate endpoints for cancer drug approval often lack formal empirical verification

Surrogate endpoints used to support the majority of new cancer drugs approved in the U.S. often lack formal study, according to the authors of a study published in the June issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings. [More]
Slime mold provides key to understanding directional ability of immune cells

Slime mold provides key to understanding directional ability of immune cells

How white blood cells in our immune systems home in on and engulf bacterial invaders--like humans following the scent of oven-fresh pizza--has long been a mystery to scientists. [More]
Researchers demonstrate decisive role of cholesterol in T cell activation

Researchers demonstrate decisive role of cholesterol in T cell activation

T cell receptors are an important part of the human immune system. They are able to switch their conformation from an inactive to an active state spontaneously without any antigens present. [More]
New CRISPR-EZ method makes genome editing much easier in mice

New CRISPR-EZ method makes genome editing much easier in mice

University of California, Berkeley scientists have developed a quicker and more efficient method to alter the genes of mice with CRISPR-Cas9, simplifying a procedure growing in popularity because of the ease of using the new gene-editing tool. [More]
Certain HLA genes may increase ovarian cancer risk in women

Certain HLA genes may increase ovarian cancer risk in women

Researchers in the Center for Immunotherapy at Roswell Park Cancer Institute have evaluated the human leukocyte antigen (HLA), a group of genes that help regulate the body's immune system, for underlying differences in ovarian cancer patients' response to therapy. [More]
Combining VCA with organ transplants improves patient outcomes

Combining VCA with organ transplants improves patient outcomes

Simultaneous transplantation of a "composite" skull and scalp flap plus a kidney and pancreas—all from the same donor—provided excellent outcomes for a patient with a non-healing scalp defect and declining organ kidney and pancreas function, according to a report in the June issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. [More]
Axumin approved for use in PET scans in patients with recurrent prostate cancer

Axumin approved for use in PET scans in patients with recurrent prostate cancer

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Axumin, a radioactive diagnostic agent for injection. Axumin is indicated for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in men with suspected prostate cancer recurrence based on elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels following prior treatment. [More]
Applying deep neural networks to predict pharmacologic properties of drugs and drug repurposing

Applying deep neural networks to predict pharmacologic properties of drugs and drug repurposing

Deep learning, frequently referred to as artificial intelligence, a branch of machine learning utilizing multiple layers of neurons to model high-level abstractions in data, has outperformed humans in tasks including image, text and voice recognition, autonomous driving and others, and is now being applied to drug discovery and biomarker development. [More]
Researchers develop new drugs for melanoma

Researchers develop new drugs for melanoma

Finding new, more effective and personalised treatments for cancer is the challenge of many researchers. A challenge that has been successfully met by a team from Inserm led by Stéphane Rocchi, which has just synthesised and developed new drugs for melanoma. [More]
Study identifies potential new treatment for subset of gastric cancer patients

Study identifies potential new treatment for subset of gastric cancer patients

Testing cancers for 'addiction' to a gene that boosts cell growth can pick out patients who may respond to a targeted drug under development, a major new study reports. [More]
Increasing specific microRNA levels can restore chemotherapy sensitivity in pancreatic cancer cells

Increasing specific microRNA levels can restore chemotherapy sensitivity in pancreatic cancer cells

By increasing the level of a specific microRNA (miRNA) molecule, researchers have for the first time restored chemotherapy sensitivity in vitro to a line of human pancreatic cancer cells that had developed resistance to a common treatment drug. [More]
Study finds that TPC2 protein regulates melanin production

Study finds that TPC2 protein regulates melanin production

A year and a half ago, researchers at Brown University found a molecular gas pedal for melanin production. Now they've found a brake. For scientists, the finding deepens not only the basic understanding of how eyes, skin and hair gain color, but also what perhaps can be done in disorders, such as albinism, when that doesn't happen. [More]
Cell phone radiation exposure may lead to increased rates of rare cancers

Cell phone radiation exposure may lead to increased rates of rare cancers

According to new report from Microwave News, the U.S. National Toxicology Program has found increased rates of rare cancers of the heart and brain in animals exposed to cell phone radiation in a long-awaited multi-million dollar two-year study. [More]
Salk scientists discover REV-ERBα protein that controls strength of circadian rhythm

Salk scientists discover REV-ERBα protein that controls strength of circadian rhythm

At noon every day, levels of genes and proteins throughout your body are drastically different than they are at midnight. Disruptions to this 24-hour cycle of physiological activity are why jet lag or a bad night's sleep can alter your appetite and sleep patterns for days--and even contribute to conditions like heart disease, sleep disorders and cancers. [More]
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