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Estrogens are a family of related molecules that stimulate the development and maintenance of female characteristics and sexual reproduction.

The natural estrogens produced by women are steroid molecules, which means that they are derived from a particular type of molecular skeleton containing four rings of carbon atoms, giving the shape shown here. The most prevalent forms of human estrogen are estradiol and estrone. Both are produced and secreted by the ovaries, although estrone is also made in the adrenal glands and other organs.
Simultaneous use of hormones and statins can protect women from heart disease after menopause

Simultaneous use of hormones and statins can protect women from heart disease after menopause

Hormones may not protect women from heart disease or stroke after menopause, but when combined with cholesterol-lowering statin drugs, they may help protect women from these killers, shows a population study from Sweden to be published in the April issue of Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society. [More]
Oxis Biotech executes licensing agreement with MCIT for development of antibody-drug conjugates

Oxis Biotech executes licensing agreement with MCIT for development of antibody-drug conjugates

Oxis Biotech, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Oxis International, Inc., announced today the execution of a definitive licensing and development agreement with MultiCell Immunotherapeutics, Inc. concerning the development of certain antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). [More]
BPA exposure may cause tooth enamel abnormality in children

BPA exposure may cause tooth enamel abnormality in children

A tooth enamel abnormality in children, molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH), may result from exposure to the industrial chemical bisphenol A (BPA), authors of a new study conclude after finding similar damage to the dental enamel of rats that received BPA. [More]
Testosterone, estrogen raise men's risk of heart disease

Testosterone, estrogen raise men's risk of heart disease

Why men have more heart disease than premenopausal women has been unclear, but a new study shows that the sex hormones testosterone and estrogen alter cardiovascular risk factors in a way that raises a man's risk of heart disease. [More]
New review finds no link between menopausal hormone therapy and mortality risk

New review finds no link between menopausal hormone therapy and mortality risk

Menopausal hormone therapy (HT) does not have a significant effect on death, according to a new review of the medical literature published over the past three decades. [More]
New study shows positive effects of gastric bypass surgery on obese adolescents

New study shows positive effects of gastric bypass surgery on obese adolescents

The skeletons of obese adolescents are usually more dense than those of normal weight teens, but after gastric bypass surgery, most return to normal density within two years, a new study finds. [More]
Letrozole helps restore fertility in obese, infertile men

Letrozole helps restore fertility in obese, infertile men

A letrozole pill once a week restored fertility in obese, infertile men and led to their partners giving birth to two full-term, healthy babies, according to a new study from Canada. The results will be presented Thursday at the Endocrine Society's 97th annual meeting in San Diego. [More]
Plant molecule helps female mice combat weight gain

Plant molecule helps female mice combat weight gain

A molecule found in some plants can combat weight gain induced by a high-fat diet, but only in female mice, not males. 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) is thought to mimic the effects of a growth factor induced by exercise. [More]
Adding goserelin drug to chemotherapy prevents early menopause in young women with breast cancer

Adding goserelin drug to chemotherapy prevents early menopause in young women with breast cancer

Early menopause can be prevented and fertility may be preserved in young women with early stage breast cancer, according to a study published today in The New England Journal of Medicine [More]
MIT researchers develop new nanodevice that can help overcome drug resistance

MIT researchers develop new nanodevice that can help overcome drug resistance

Chemotherapy often shrinks tumors at first, but as cancer cells become resistant to drug treatment, tumors can grow back. A new nanodevice developed by MIT researchers can help overcome that by first blocking the gene that confers drug resistance, then launching a new chemotherapy attack against the disarmed tumors. [More]
Study debunks false reports surrounding risk of hormone therapy

Study debunks false reports surrounding risk of hormone therapy

For over a decade, hormone therapy (HT) has been a hot topic in medicine. Unfortunately, women are still confused and concerned about using HT after two federally-funded studies linked HT to potentially serious health risks. [More]
Study: Plant compounds can help prevent liver damage during menopause

Study: Plant compounds can help prevent liver damage during menopause

Women going through menopause often struggle with weight gain that results when their estrogen levels drop, and many turn to weight-loss supplements to help them shed those extra pounds. But those supplements may cause an accumulation of fat in the liver and a potentially life-threatening condition called non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. [More]
Scientists discover DNA vaccine that alleviates chronic inflammation in the body

Scientists discover DNA vaccine that alleviates chronic inflammation in the body

An international team of scientists including CureLab Oncology, Inc. (Boston), University of Camerino (Italy), and Boston University have serendipitously discovered a DNA vaccine, which systemically alleviates chronic inflammation in the body. Since osteoporosis is an inflammatory disease, preventive and therapeutic effects of the new vaccine were demonstrated on mouse models with osteoporosis. [More]
Study shows that even breast cancers with few androgen receptors benefit from anti-androgen therapy

Study shows that even breast cancers with few androgen receptors benefit from anti-androgen therapy

A University of Colorado Cancer Center study published today in the journal Molecular Cancer Therapeutics shows that only about 1 percent of triple-negative breast cancer cells in a tumor must be "androgen-receptor-positive" to show benefit from anti-androgen therapies. [More]
VagiCap improves quality of life, satisfaction for postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy

VagiCap improves quality of life, satisfaction for postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy

Newly released patient satisfaction survey results from a study of a novel investigational vaginal estrogen treatment show promise for improving quality of life and satisfaction for postmenopausal women who experience pain during sex and other symptoms associated with vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA). [More]
Many women fail to understand risks of unapproved, untested bioidentical hormone therapies

Many women fail to understand risks of unapproved, untested bioidentical hormone therapies

From 28% to 68% of women using hormones at menopause take compounded, so-called "bioidentical" hormones, but women don't understand the risks of these unapproved, untested treatments, shows an analysis of two large surveys, which was published online today in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society. [More]
Palbociclib extends progression-free survival in advanced breast cancer patients

Palbociclib extends progression-free survival in advanced breast cancer patients

Palbociclib, an investigational oral medication that works by blocking molecules responsible for cancer cell growth, is well tolerated and extends progression-free survival (PFS) in newly diagnosed, advanced breast cancer patients, including those whose disease has stopped responding to traditional endocrine treatments. [More]
Postmenopausal women susceptible to bone fractures may be at increased risk for gum disease

Postmenopausal women susceptible to bone fractures may be at increased risk for gum disease

Postmenopausal women susceptible to bone fractures may also be a higher risk for gum disease, according to researchers at Case Western Reserve University School of Dental Medicine and Case/Cleveland Clinic Postmenopausal Health Collaboration. [More]
Adult survivors of childhood cancer at risk for pituitary hormone deficiencies

Adult survivors of childhood cancer at risk for pituitary hormone deficiencies

Decades after undergoing cranial irradiation for childhood cancer, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital investigators found that adult survivors of pediatric cancer remain at risk for pituitary hormone deficiencies that may diminish their health and quality of life. [More]
Study focuses on two natural approaches to preventing breast cancer

Study focuses on two natural approaches to preventing breast cancer

Preventing cancer requires intimate knowledge of how cancer starts, what causes it to grow and flourish, and how to stop it in its tracks. Sometimes this comes in the form of a vaccine (the HPV vaccine for cervical and head and neck cancers), a screening (a colonoscopy for colorectal cancer) or a blood test (the PSA level test for prostate cancer). [More]
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