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Estrogens are a family of related molecules that stimulate the development and maintenance of female characteristics and sexual reproduction.

The natural estrogens produced by women are steroid molecules, which means that they are derived from a particular type of molecular skeleton containing four rings of carbon atoms, giving the shape shown here. The most prevalent forms of human estrogen are estradiol and estrone. Both are produced and secreted by the ovaries, although estrone is also made in the adrenal glands and other organs.
Scientists identify eight cancer types linked to excess weight and obesity

Scientists identify eight cancer types linked to excess weight and obesity

There's yet another reason to maintain a healthy weight as we age. An international team of researchers has identified eight additional types of cancer linked to excess weight and obesity: stomach, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, ovary, meningioma (a type of brain tumor), thyroid cancer and the blood cancer multiple myeloma. [More]
Melatonin appears to suppress growth of breast cancer stem cells

Melatonin appears to suppress growth of breast cancer stem cells

Melatonin, a hormone produced in the human brain, appears to suppress the growth of breast cancer tumors. [More]
Seeds of tropical shrub guarana contain ten times more amount of catechins than green tea

Seeds of tropical shrub guarana contain ten times more amount of catechins than green tea

The millions of people who consume green tea all over the world benefit from the catechins it contains. [More]
Prenatal BPA exposure could lead to development of anxiety and depression in boys

Prenatal BPA exposure could lead to development of anxiety and depression in boys

Boys exposed prenatally to a common chemical used in plastics may be more likely to develop symptoms of anxiety and depression at age 10-12. [More]
SUNY Downstate professor provides tips for new mothers who experience severe hair loss

SUNY Downstate professor provides tips for new mothers who experience severe hair loss

For new mothers concerned about hair loss, dermatologists say they needn't worry. Many women experience noticeable hair loss after having a baby, and experts say it is normal, temporary and caused by changes in hormones. [More]
Study reveals needle biopsy hormone receptor testing for DCIS wastes millions

Study reveals needle biopsy hormone receptor testing for DCIS wastes millions

For patients with the most common type of noninvasive breast cancer, routine testing for estrogen and progesterone receptors in tissue taken at the first "needle" biopsy is both unnecessary and wasteful, according to results of a study led by Johns Hopkins pathologists. [More]
Women using contraception containing estrogen may have high vitamin D levels, study shows

Women using contraception containing estrogen may have high vitamin D levels, study shows

Women risk having their vitamin D levels fall when they stop using birth control pills or other contraceptives containing estrogen, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. [More]
Naturally occurring estrogen in cow’s milk does not affect blood hormone levels, study shows

Naturally occurring estrogen in cow’s milk does not affect blood hormone levels, study shows

Estrogen occurs naturally in cow's milk. Recently, there has been concern that consuming milk containing elevated amounts of estrogen could affect blood levels of the hormone in humans, leading to an increased risk of some cancers. [More]
UTA researchers find how changing estrogen levels make women more vulnerable to cocaine addiction

UTA researchers find how changing estrogen levels make women more vulnerable to cocaine addiction

Researchers at The University of Texas at Arlington are studying how fluctuating estrogen levels make females increasingly sensitive to the rewarding effects of cocaine and ultimately, vulnerable to cocaine addiction. [More]
MIT researchers develop portable device to manufacture biopharmaceuticals on demand

MIT researchers develop portable device to manufacture biopharmaceuticals on demand

For medics on the battlefield and doctors in remote or developing parts of the world, getting rapid access to the drugs needed to treat patients can be challenging. [More]
Study reports sampling method used for new breast cancer tests may need to be refined

Study reports sampling method used for new breast cancer tests may need to be refined

Not only is breast cancer more than one disease, but a single breast cancer tumor can vary within itself, a finding that University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute researchers discovered has the potential to lead to very different patient treatment plans depending on the tumor sample and diagnostic testing used. [More]
Shorter and longer reproductive durations can raise risk of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women

Shorter and longer reproductive durations can raise risk of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women

Using data from the Women's Health Initiative, a new study has found that women with reproductive-period durations of less than 30 years had a 37% increased risk of type 2 diabetes compared with women whose reproductive durations were somewhere in the middle (36 to 40 years). [More]
Early and late menopause linked to increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes

Early and late menopause linked to increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes

Women who begin menopause before age 46 or after 55 have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, according to a study of more than 124,000 women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative, a large national trial aimed at preventing disease in postmenopausal women. [More]
Researchers find genetic variability in frozen vials of cells purchased from same cell bank

Researchers find genetic variability in frozen vials of cells purchased from same cell bank

In a surprise finding, researchers working with breast cancer cells purchased at the same time from the same cell bank discovered that the cells responded differently to chemicals, even though the researchers had not detected any difference when they tested them for authenticity at the time of purchase. [More]
Male hormones can reverse biological drivers of aging, study shows

Male hormones can reverse biological drivers of aging, study shows

Telomerase, an enzyme naturally found in the human organism, is the closest of all known substances to a "cellular elixir of youth." In a recent study, Brazilian and US researchers show that sex hormones can stimulate production of this enzyme. [More]
Postmenopausal estrogen supplement may not affect memory of healthy women

Postmenopausal estrogen supplement may not affect memory of healthy women

Contrary to popular belief, taking estrogen after menopause may not affect the memory and thinking abilities of healthy women no matter when the treatment is started. [More]
Study finds low rates of baseline BMD testing among older women with breast cancer

Study finds low rates of baseline BMD testing among older women with breast cancer

Aromatase inhibitors (AIs)—drugs that stop the production of estrogen in women—are standard adjuvant therapy for post-menopausal women with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer. [More]
17beta-Estradiol patch may help reduce Alzheimer's disease risk in newly postmenopausal women

17beta-Estradiol patch may help reduce Alzheimer's disease risk in newly postmenopausal women

Can estrogen preserve brain function and decrease the risk of Alzheimer's disease when given early in menopause? Newly postmenopausal women who received estrogen via a skin patch had reduced beta-amyloid deposits, the sticky plaques found in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease, a Mayo Clinic study published this month in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease found. [More]
Metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular events linked to decreased sexual activity in postmenopausal women

Metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular events linked to decreased sexual activity in postmenopausal women

Understanding the effects of age and disease on sexual wellbeing is crucial as sexual health is increasingly associated with vitality. In a new study published in The American Journal of Medicine, researchers looked at the role metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease play in postmenopausal women's sexual health. [More]
Study shows stress relief after eating highly palatable foods may vary between sexes

Study shows stress relief after eating highly palatable foods may vary between sexes

Researchers at the University of Cincinnati have found that the brain networks that mediate stress relief after eating highly palatable foods may vary between males and females, and may also depend on the stage of the estrous cycle. [More]
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