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Estrogens are a family of related molecules that stimulate the development and maintenance of female characteristics and sexual reproduction.

The natural estrogens produced by women are steroid molecules, which means that they are derived from a particular type of molecular skeleton containing four rings of carbon atoms, giving the shape shown here. The most prevalent forms of human estrogen are estradiol and estrone. Both are produced and secreted by the ovaries, although estrone is also made in the adrenal glands and other organs.
Study reports sampling method used for new breast cancer tests may need to be refined

Study reports sampling method used for new breast cancer tests may need to be refined

Not only is breast cancer more than one disease, but a single breast cancer tumor can vary within itself, a finding that University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute researchers discovered has the potential to lead to very different patient treatment plans depending on the tumor sample and diagnostic testing used. [More]
Shorter and longer reproductive durations can raise risk of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women

Shorter and longer reproductive durations can raise risk of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women

Using data from the Women's Health Initiative, a new study has found that women with reproductive-period durations of less than 30 years had a 37% increased risk of type 2 diabetes compared with women whose reproductive durations were somewhere in the middle (36 to 40 years). [More]
Early and late menopause linked to increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes

Early and late menopause linked to increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes

Women who begin menopause before age 46 or after 55 have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, according to a study of more than 124,000 women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative, a large national trial aimed at preventing disease in postmenopausal women. [More]
Researchers find genetic variability in frozen vials of cells purchased from same cell bank

Researchers find genetic variability in frozen vials of cells purchased from same cell bank

In a surprise finding, researchers working with breast cancer cells purchased at the same time from the same cell bank discovered that the cells responded differently to chemicals, even though the researchers had not detected any difference when they tested them for authenticity at the time of purchase. [More]
Male hormones can reverse biological drivers of aging, study shows

Male hormones can reverse biological drivers of aging, study shows

Telomerase, an enzyme naturally found in the human organism, is the closest of all known substances to a "cellular elixir of youth." In a recent study, Brazilian and US researchers show that sex hormones can stimulate production of this enzyme. [More]
Postmenopausal estrogen supplement may not affect memory of healthy women

Postmenopausal estrogen supplement may not affect memory of healthy women

Contrary to popular belief, taking estrogen after menopause may not affect the memory and thinking abilities of healthy women no matter when the treatment is started. [More]
Study finds low rates of baseline BMD testing among older women with breast cancer

Study finds low rates of baseline BMD testing among older women with breast cancer

Aromatase inhibitors (AIs)—drugs that stop the production of estrogen in women—are standard adjuvant therapy for post-menopausal women with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer. [More]
17beta-Estradiol patch may help reduce Alzheimer's disease risk in newly postmenopausal women

17beta-Estradiol patch may help reduce Alzheimer's disease risk in newly postmenopausal women

Can estrogen preserve brain function and decrease the risk of Alzheimer's disease when given early in menopause? Newly postmenopausal women who received estrogen via a skin patch had reduced beta-amyloid deposits, the sticky plaques found in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease, a Mayo Clinic study published this month in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease found. [More]
Metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular events linked to decreased sexual activity in postmenopausal women

Metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular events linked to decreased sexual activity in postmenopausal women

Understanding the effects of age and disease on sexual wellbeing is crucial as sexual health is increasingly associated with vitality. In a new study published in The American Journal of Medicine, researchers looked at the role metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease play in postmenopausal women's sexual health. [More]
Study shows stress relief after eating highly palatable foods may vary between sexes

Study shows stress relief after eating highly palatable foods may vary between sexes

Researchers at the University of Cincinnati have found that the brain networks that mediate stress relief after eating highly palatable foods may vary between males and females, and may also depend on the stage of the estrous cycle. [More]
Hops extract activates chemical pathway in cells to help prevent breast cancer

Hops extract activates chemical pathway in cells to help prevent breast cancer

An enriched hops extract activates a chemical pathway in cells that could help prevent breast cancer, according to new laboratory findings from the UIC/NIH Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research at the University of Illinois at Chicago. [More]
Researchers to develop new test to predict therapy for women with ER+ breast cancer

Researchers to develop new test to predict therapy for women with ER+ breast cancer

Researchers from Case Western Reserve University are teaming with industry and other academics to develop a quick and inexpensive test to predict which women with ER+ breast cancer need chemotherapy and which need only the more tolerable hormonal therapy. [More]
Female patients under age 25 have increased risk of ACL re-tear, research shows

Female patients under age 25 have increased risk of ACL re-tear, research shows

Graft size, sex and age have a significant effect on the odds of an ACL re-tear post reconstruction with a hamstring graft, say researchers presenting their work today at the American Orthopaedic Society of Sports Medicine's (AOSSM) Annual Meeting in Colorado Springs, CO. [More]
Researchers aim to explore impact of gender and aging on CapZ levels in the heart

Researchers aim to explore impact of gender and aging on CapZ levels in the heart

Why do women have lower rates of heart failure than men for most of their lives? University of Guelph researchers have uncovered a possible clue - an actin binding protein called "CapZ" that also protects against heart attacks. [More]
BU researcher receives grant to better understand breast cancer in African-American women

BU researcher receives grant to better understand breast cancer in African-American women

Why do African-American women die at a higher rate and experience more aggressive breast tumors than white women? Researchers from Boston University's Slone Epidemiology Center (SEC) have received funding from the National Cancer Institute to explore this question. [More]
Menopause symptoms: can a healthcare professional help? An interview with Dr Heather Currie

Menopause symptoms: can a healthcare professional help? An interview with Dr Heather Currie

The survey showed that only 50% of women consulted a healthcare professional about their symptoms, despite the fact that many women said their symptoms were having a significant effect on their work life, social life, home life and sex life. [More]
Researchers tune into previously unknown cross talk between estrogen and progesterone receptors

Researchers tune into previously unknown cross talk between estrogen and progesterone receptors

One of the first clues pathologists look for in tissue from a newly diagnosed breast cancer patient is the estrogen receptor, a nuclear protein that converts hormonal messages in the bloodstream into instructions for the cell about how to behave [More]
Hops show promise in reducing breast cancer risk

Hops show promise in reducing breast cancer risk

Hops, the flower cones used in beer-making, are also found in dietary supplements designed to help treat post-menopausal symptoms and other conditions. Scientists are now investigating whether an extract from the plant could also help fend off breast cancer. [More]
Fetal BPA exposure leads to harmful change in adult uterine response to estrogens

Fetal BPA exposure leads to harmful change in adult uterine response to estrogens

Low levels of BPA exposure may be considered safe, but new research published online in The FASEB Journal, suggests otherwise. In the report, researchers from Yale show that the genome is permanently altered in the uterus of mice that had been exposed to BPA during their fetal development. [More]
Interdisciplinary approach to improve cancer treatments

Interdisciplinary approach to improve cancer treatments

Whether it focuses on determining why certain cancers develop drug resistance, finding a way to improve individual's immune systems or better understanding cancer cell evolution, fundamental scientific research will "stand up to cancer" with three new awards from the National Science Foundation. [More]
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