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Estrogens are a family of related molecules that stimulate the development and maintenance of female characteristics and sexual reproduction.

The natural estrogens produced by women are steroid molecules, which means that they are derived from a particular type of molecular skeleton containing four rings of carbon atoms, giving the shape shown here. The most prevalent forms of human estrogen are estradiol and estrone. Both are produced and secreted by the ovaries, although estrone is also made in the adrenal glands and other organs.
Lidocaine benefits breast cancer survivors who experience pain during intercourse

Lidocaine benefits breast cancer survivors who experience pain during intercourse

Scientists at Oregon Health & Science University report that breast cancer survivors who experience pain during sexual intercourse, a common side effect of breast cancer treatment, may achieve comfort when liquid lidocaine is applied strategically to prevent pain. [More]
Endocrine Society selects 18 endocrinologists as winners of 2016 Laureate Awards

Endocrine Society selects 18 endocrinologists as winners of 2016 Laureate Awards

The Endocrine Society today announced it has chosen 18 accomplished endocrinologists as winners of the organization's prestigious 2016 Laureate Awards. [More]
Researchers discover experimental drug that treats hot flashes, other menopausal symptoms without side effects

Researchers discover experimental drug that treats hot flashes, other menopausal symptoms without side effects

Researchers have discovered an experimental medication that treats hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms without the life-threatening risks of hormone replacement therapy, according to a team led by a UNT Health Science Center scientist. [More]
Late- and post-menopausal women have more fat around hearts compared to pre-menopausal counterparts

Late- and post-menopausal women have more fat around hearts compared to pre-menopausal counterparts

Late- and post-menopausal women have significantly greater volumes of fat around their hearts - a risk factor for heart disease - than their pre-menopausal counterparts, a University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health study has shown for the first time. [More]
UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center named among top 10 cancer centers in nation

UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center named among top 10 cancer centers in nation

UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center is ranked among the top 10 cancer centers in the nation, according to a U.S. News & World Report survey of board-certified physicians from across the country. The survey reviewed patient outcomes, the cancer center's reputation among physicians, mortality rates and other care-related factors. [More]
Study: Breast cancer survivors experience post-treatment weight gain compared with cancer-free peers

Study: Breast cancer survivors experience post-treatment weight gain compared with cancer-free peers

Among women with a family history of breast cancer, those diagnosed with breast cancer gained weight at a greater rate compared with cancer-free women of the same age and menopausal status. [More]
Study examines how low-methionine diet may help improve outcomes in triple-negative breast cancer patients

Study examines how low-methionine diet may help improve outcomes in triple-negative breast cancer patients

A diet that starves triple-negative breast cancer cells of an essential nutrient primes the cancer cells to be more easily killed by a targeted antibody treatment, UW Carbone Cancer Center scientists report in a recent publication. [More]
UMass Amherst scientist to study how estrogen-mimicking chemicals in the womb can increase breast cancer risk

UMass Amherst scientist to study how estrogen-mimicking chemicals in the womb can increase breast cancer risk

Much attention has been paid to genetics in breast cancer as disease rates rise, but most women have no family history of the disease, suggesting that there is an environmental risk we don't yet understand, says environmental health scientist Laura Vandenberg in the School of Public Health and Health Sciences at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. [More]
UC researcher awarded NCI grant to study effect of MED1 protein on HER2-positive breast cancer

UC researcher awarded NCI grant to study effect of MED1 protein on HER2-positive breast cancer

Xiaoting Zhang, PhD, associate professor in the Department of Cancer Biology at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, has received a $1.8 million, five-year, R01 award (R01CA197865) from the National Cancer Institute to continue breast cancer research focusing on the function of the protein MED1 on HER2-positive breast cancer. [More]
New species of tRNA-derived small RNAs contribute to cell proliferation in cancer

New species of tRNA-derived small RNAs contribute to cell proliferation in cancer

Since their discovery in the 1950s, transfer RNAs (tRNAs) have been best known for their role in helping the cell make proteins from messenger RNA templates. However, recent studies have led to a previously-unsuspected concept that tRNAs are not always the end product; namely, they further serve as a source of small RNAs. [More]
Selective use of biomarker testing for breast cancer patients can save millions of dollars in health care spending

Selective use of biomarker testing for breast cancer patients can save millions of dollars in health care spending

A review of medical records for almost 200 patients with breast cancer suggests that more selective use of biomarker testing for such patients has the potential to save millions of dollars in health care spending without compromising care, according to Johns Hopkins researchers. [More]
TSRI scientists devise powerful set of chemical methods to explore protein biology

TSRI scientists devise powerful set of chemical methods to explore protein biology

Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have devised a powerful set of chemical methods for exploring the biology of proteins. [More]
Hormones used in breast cancer treatment could affect disease progression, outcomes in some patients

Hormones used in breast cancer treatment could affect disease progression, outcomes in some patients

Recently, researchers have discovered that the hormone progesterone, an ingredient in contraceptives and menopausal hormone replacement therapies, might stimulate the growth of breast cancer cells that are resistant to anti-estrogen therapy and chemotherapy. [More]
Water retention linked to changes in sex hormone levels

Water retention linked to changes in sex hormone levels

Water retention—a cause of bloating—is associated with changes in sex hormone levels. Many women experience water retention during menopause, but how sex hormones affect water balance is not understood. A new study in in the American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology sheds light on the connection, finding that sex hormones can directly control how the body reabsorbs water. [More]
Early menstrual cycle could play role in development of ER-negative breast cancer among African-American women

Early menstrual cycle could play role in development of ER-negative breast cancer among African-American women

Early age at menarche, or first menstrual cycle, could play a role in the disproportionate incidence of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancers diagnosed among African-American women, according to a study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. [More]
DAPK1 protein may be a promising new therapeutic target for most aggressive breast cancers

DAPK1 protein may be a promising new therapeutic target for most aggressive breast cancers

Although traditionally understood to induce death in cancer cells, researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have discovered that the DAPK1 protein is actually essential for growth in breast and other cancers with mutations in the TP53 gene. This discovery indicates DAPK1 may be a promising new therapeutic target for many of the most aggressive cancers. [More]
New study shows that estrogen receptors vanish in cervical cancer tumors

New study shows that estrogen receptors vanish in cervical cancer tumors

Scientists have prior evidence that the hormone estrogen is a major driver in the growth of cervical cancer, but a new study examining genetic profiles of 128 clinical cases reached a surprising conclusion: Estrogen receptors all but vanish in cervical cancer tumors. [More]
WHO's updated essential medicines list includes progesterone contraceptive vaginal ring

WHO's updated essential medicines list includes progesterone contraceptive vaginal ring

The World Health Organization released its 2015 updated essential medicines list and for the first time included the progesterone contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR), a contraceptive safe and effective for lactating women in the postpartum period. [More]
University at Albany researcher receives $1.76 million NIH grant to explore role of vitamin D in breast cancer

University at Albany researcher receives $1.76 million NIH grant to explore role of vitamin D in breast cancer

Each year, about 230,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed in women in the U.S. It remains the third leading cause of death, behind only heart disease and lung cancer. Of the new cases, about 20 percent of women will be diagnosed with "triple negative" breast cancer (TNBC), a deadly form of breast cancer that does not respond to standard treatments such as tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors. [More]
Medical experts call for accurate, standardized estrogen testing methods

Medical experts call for accurate, standardized estrogen testing methods

Unreliable estrogen measurements have had a negative impact on the treatment of and research into many hormone-related cancers and chronic conditions. To improve patient care, a panel of medical experts has called for accurate, standardized estrogen testing methods in a statement published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. [More]
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