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Estrogens are a family of related molecules that stimulate the development and maintenance of female characteristics and sexual reproduction.

The natural estrogens produced by women are steroid molecules, which means that they are derived from a particular type of molecular skeleton containing four rings of carbon atoms, giving the shape shown here. The most prevalent forms of human estrogen are estradiol and estrone. Both are produced and secreted by the ovaries, although estrone is also made in the adrenal glands and other organs.
Genetic test that predicts recurrence of breast cancer may impact use of chemotherapy

Genetic test that predicts recurrence of breast cancer may impact use of chemotherapy

A genetic test that helps predict whether some women's breast cancer will recur might influence how chemotherapy is used, according to a study from Duke Medicine. [More]
New review article reveals Y chromosome’s role in cardiovascular and immune function, cancer

New review article reveals Y chromosome’s role in cardiovascular and immune function, cancer

The role of sex in human disease is a growing area of research. Although estrogen (in females) and androgens (in males) are often seen as possible causes for such differences, sex chromosomes, including the male-specific Y chromosome, may also play a role. However, it has been difficult to understand how the Y chromosome could contribute to disease in men, in part because it is much more difficult to sequence than all other chromosomes. [More]
ASTRO awards $675,000 to seven physician-researchers to advance radiation oncology research

ASTRO awards $675,000 to seven physician-researchers to advance radiation oncology research

The American Society for Radiation Oncology has selected seven leading physician-researchers to receive a total of $675,000 in awards and grants to advance radiation oncology research. Together, the seven funding grants, including ASTRO Junior Faculty Career Research Training Award, the ASTRO Residents/Fellows in Radiation Oncology Research Seed Award and the ASTRO/Radiation Oncology Institute Comparative Effectiveness Research Award, will support studies in radiation and cancer biology, radiation physics, translational research, outcomes/health services research and comparative effectiveness research within radiation oncology. [More]
Dr. Sharma receives research award from ASCO to continue study on triple-negative breast cancer

Dr. Sharma receives research award from ASCO to continue study on triple-negative breast cancer

Dr. Sharma was awarded the 2015 Advanced Clinical Research Award in Breast Cancer from the American Society of Clinical Oncology to continue her research on triple-negative breast cancer. [More]
Study sheds light on fertility concerns of young breast cancer patients

Study sheds light on fertility concerns of young breast cancer patients

Concerns about fertility kept a third of young women with breast cancer from taking tamoxifen, despite its known benefit in reducing the risk of breast cancer coming back. [More]
Researchers refine breast cancer risk model to give more accurate assessment

Researchers refine breast cancer risk model to give more accurate assessment

A national risk model that gauges a woman's chance of developing breast cancer has been refined to give a more accurate assessment. The revised figures, based on data from more than one million patients, reveal a 300 percent increase in a subset of women whose five-year risk is estimated at 3 percent or higher. [More]
Postmenopausal women more likely to use vaginal estrogen to achieve significantly higher sexual quality of life

Postmenopausal women more likely to use vaginal estrogen to achieve significantly higher sexual quality of life

Local vaginal estrogen (VE) appears to have escaped the shroud of doubt cast upon hormone therapy as a result of the Women's Health Initiative Study by providing numerous medical benefits without systemic effects. That's according to a new study reported online today in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society. [More]
Swedish study reveals combined effects of smoking and early menopause on overall mortality

Swedish study reveals combined effects of smoking and early menopause on overall mortality

Women may now have yet another reason to quit smoking given the results of a new study that is being reported online today in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society. The Swedish study involving 25,474 women is the first to quantify the combined effects of smoking and age at menopause on overall mortality in terms of survival time by investigating the role of smoking as a possible effect modifier. [More]
Lidocaine benefits breast cancer survivors who experience pain during intercourse

Lidocaine benefits breast cancer survivors who experience pain during intercourse

Scientists at Oregon Health & Science University report that breast cancer survivors who experience pain during sexual intercourse, a common side effect of breast cancer treatment, may achieve comfort when liquid lidocaine is applied strategically to prevent pain. [More]
Endocrine Society selects 18 endocrinologists as winners of 2016 Laureate Awards

Endocrine Society selects 18 endocrinologists as winners of 2016 Laureate Awards

The Endocrine Society today announced it has chosen 18 accomplished endocrinologists as winners of the organization's prestigious 2016 Laureate Awards. [More]
Researchers discover experimental drug that treats hot flashes, other menopausal symptoms without side effects

Researchers discover experimental drug that treats hot flashes, other menopausal symptoms without side effects

Researchers have discovered an experimental medication that treats hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms without the life-threatening risks of hormone replacement therapy, according to a team led by a UNT Health Science Center scientist. [More]
Late- and post-menopausal women have more fat around hearts compared to pre-menopausal counterparts

Late- and post-menopausal women have more fat around hearts compared to pre-menopausal counterparts

Late- and post-menopausal women have significantly greater volumes of fat around their hearts - a risk factor for heart disease - than their pre-menopausal counterparts, a University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health study has shown for the first time. [More]
UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center named among top 10 cancer centers in nation

UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center named among top 10 cancer centers in nation

UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center is ranked among the top 10 cancer centers in the nation, according to a U.S. News & World Report survey of board-certified physicians from across the country. The survey reviewed patient outcomes, the cancer center's reputation among physicians, mortality rates and other care-related factors. [More]
Study: Breast cancer survivors experience post-treatment weight gain compared with cancer-free peers

Study: Breast cancer survivors experience post-treatment weight gain compared with cancer-free peers

Among women with a family history of breast cancer, those diagnosed with breast cancer gained weight at a greater rate compared with cancer-free women of the same age and menopausal status. [More]
Study examines how low-methionine diet may help improve outcomes in triple-negative breast cancer patients

Study examines how low-methionine diet may help improve outcomes in triple-negative breast cancer patients

A diet that starves triple-negative breast cancer cells of an essential nutrient primes the cancer cells to be more easily killed by a targeted antibody treatment, UW Carbone Cancer Center scientists report in a recent publication. [More]
UMass Amherst scientist to study how estrogen-mimicking chemicals in the womb can increase breast cancer risk

UMass Amherst scientist to study how estrogen-mimicking chemicals in the womb can increase breast cancer risk

Much attention has been paid to genetics in breast cancer as disease rates rise, but most women have no family history of the disease, suggesting that there is an environmental risk we don't yet understand, says environmental health scientist Laura Vandenberg in the School of Public Health and Health Sciences at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. [More]
UC researcher awarded NCI grant to study effect of MED1 protein on HER2-positive breast cancer

UC researcher awarded NCI grant to study effect of MED1 protein on HER2-positive breast cancer

Xiaoting Zhang, PhD, associate professor in the Department of Cancer Biology at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, has received a $1.8 million, five-year, R01 award (R01CA197865) from the National Cancer Institute to continue breast cancer research focusing on the function of the protein MED1 on HER2-positive breast cancer. [More]
New species of tRNA-derived small RNAs contribute to cell proliferation in cancer

New species of tRNA-derived small RNAs contribute to cell proliferation in cancer

Since their discovery in the 1950s, transfer RNAs (tRNAs) have been best known for their role in helping the cell make proteins from messenger RNA templates. However, recent studies have led to a previously-unsuspected concept that tRNAs are not always the end product; namely, they further serve as a source of small RNAs. [More]
Selective use of biomarker testing for breast cancer patients can save millions of dollars in health care spending

Selective use of biomarker testing for breast cancer patients can save millions of dollars in health care spending

A review of medical records for almost 200 patients with breast cancer suggests that more selective use of biomarker testing for such patients has the potential to save millions of dollars in health care spending without compromising care, according to Johns Hopkins researchers. [More]
TSRI scientists devise powerful set of chemical methods to explore protein biology

TSRI scientists devise powerful set of chemical methods to explore protein biology

Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have devised a powerful set of chemical methods for exploring the biology of proteins. [More]
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