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Estrogens are a family of related molecules that stimulate the development and maintenance of female characteristics and sexual reproduction.

The natural estrogens produced by women are steroid molecules, which means that they are derived from a particular type of molecular skeleton containing four rings of carbon atoms, giving the shape shown here. The most prevalent forms of human estrogen are estradiol and estrone. Both are produced and secreted by the ovaries, although estrone is also made in the adrenal glands and other organs.
New species of tRNA-derived small RNAs contribute to cell proliferation in cancer

New species of tRNA-derived small RNAs contribute to cell proliferation in cancer

Since their discovery in the 1950s, transfer RNAs (tRNAs) have been best known for their role in helping the cell make proteins from messenger RNA templates. However, recent studies have led to a previously-unsuspected concept that tRNAs are not always the end product; namely, they further serve as a source of small RNAs. [More]
Selective use of biomarker testing for breast cancer patients can save millions of dollars in health care spending

Selective use of biomarker testing for breast cancer patients can save millions of dollars in health care spending

A review of medical records for almost 200 patients with breast cancer suggests that more selective use of biomarker testing for such patients has the potential to save millions of dollars in health care spending without compromising care, according to Johns Hopkins researchers. [More]
TSRI scientists devise powerful set of chemical methods to explore protein biology

TSRI scientists devise powerful set of chemical methods to explore protein biology

Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have devised a powerful set of chemical methods for exploring the biology of proteins. [More]
Hormones used in breast cancer treatment could affect disease progression, outcomes in some patients

Hormones used in breast cancer treatment could affect disease progression, outcomes in some patients

Recently, researchers have discovered that the hormone progesterone, an ingredient in contraceptives and menopausal hormone replacement therapies, might stimulate the growth of breast cancer cells that are resistant to anti-estrogen therapy and chemotherapy. [More]
Water retention linked to changes in sex hormone levels

Water retention linked to changes in sex hormone levels

Water retention—a cause of bloating—is associated with changes in sex hormone levels. Many women experience water retention during menopause, but how sex hormones affect water balance is not understood. A new study in in the American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology sheds light on the connection, finding that sex hormones can directly control how the body reabsorbs water. [More]
Early menstrual cycle could play role in development of ER-negative breast cancer among African-American women

Early menstrual cycle could play role in development of ER-negative breast cancer among African-American women

Early age at menarche, or first menstrual cycle, could play a role in the disproportionate incidence of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancers diagnosed among African-American women, according to a study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. [More]
DAPK1 protein may be a promising new therapeutic target for most aggressive breast cancers

DAPK1 protein may be a promising new therapeutic target for most aggressive breast cancers

Although traditionally understood to induce death in cancer cells, researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have discovered that the DAPK1 protein is actually essential for growth in breast and other cancers with mutations in the TP53 gene. This discovery indicates DAPK1 may be a promising new therapeutic target for many of the most aggressive cancers. [More]
New study shows that estrogen receptors vanish in cervical cancer tumors

New study shows that estrogen receptors vanish in cervical cancer tumors

Scientists have prior evidence that the hormone estrogen is a major driver in the growth of cervical cancer, but a new study examining genetic profiles of 128 clinical cases reached a surprising conclusion: Estrogen receptors all but vanish in cervical cancer tumors. [More]
WHO's updated essential medicines list includes progesterone contraceptive vaginal ring

WHO's updated essential medicines list includes progesterone contraceptive vaginal ring

The World Health Organization released its 2015 updated essential medicines list and for the first time included the progesterone contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR), a contraceptive safe and effective for lactating women in the postpartum period. [More]
University at Albany researcher receives $1.76 million NIH grant to explore role of vitamin D in breast cancer

University at Albany researcher receives $1.76 million NIH grant to explore role of vitamin D in breast cancer

Each year, about 230,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed in women in the U.S. It remains the third leading cause of death, behind only heart disease and lung cancer. Of the new cases, about 20 percent of women will be diagnosed with "triple negative" breast cancer (TNBC), a deadly form of breast cancer that does not respond to standard treatments such as tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors. [More]
Medical experts call for accurate, standardized estrogen testing methods

Medical experts call for accurate, standardized estrogen testing methods

Unreliable estrogen measurements have had a negative impact on the treatment of and research into many hormone-related cancers and chronic conditions. To improve patient care, a panel of medical experts has called for accurate, standardized estrogen testing methods in a statement published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. [More]
Genentech, Seragon, Regeneron and Avalanche receive Allicense 2015 Breakthrough Award for Deals of the Year

Genentech, Seragon, Regeneron and Avalanche receive Allicense 2015 Breakthrough Award for Deals of the Year

The Intellectual Property and Science business of Thomson Reuters, the world's leading provider of intelligent information for businesses and professionals, recently honored Genentech Partnering and Seragon, and Regeneron and Avalanche with the Allicense 2015 Breakthrough Award for Deals of the Year. [More]
New treatment option for postmenopausal women with non-invasive breast cancer

New treatment option for postmenopausal women with non-invasive breast cancer

Anastrozole provides a significant benefit compared with tamoxifen in preventing recurrence after a lumpectomy and radiation therapy in postmenopausal women ages 60 years or younger who had DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ), a common diagnosis of non-invasive breast cancer. In women over age 60, it works as well as tamoxifen. [More]
Caris Molecular Intelligence allows comparisons between tumors sharing histological features

Caris Molecular Intelligence allows comparisons between tumors sharing histological features

Caris Life Sciences, a leading biotechnology company focused on fulfilling the promise of precision medicine, today announced the presentation of data from three studies that demonstrate the utility of Caris Molecular Intelligence®, the company's panomic comprehensive tumor profiling service, in facilitating comparisons between tumors that share histological features. [More]
Researchers identify key driver mutations in glioma samples that confirm tumor heterogeneity

Researchers identify key driver mutations in glioma samples that confirm tumor heterogeneity

Caris Life Sciences today announced the presentation of data from a study in which researchers identified biomarker changes, including key driver mutations, in 89% of metachronous paired glioma tumors, indicating changes in response to therapy as the disease progresses. [More]
Novartis to highlight strength of its expanded oncology portfolio at ASCO 2015

Novartis to highlight strength of its expanded oncology portfolio at ASCO 2015

Novartis will highlight the strength of its expanded oncology portfolio in 21 medicines and 11 investigational compounds across more than 185 data presentations at the upcoming American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, May 29-June 2, and the Congress of the European Hematology Association (EHA), June 11-14. [More]
Palbociclib drug shows promise in women with HR+ metastatic breast cancer

Palbociclib drug shows promise in women with HR+ metastatic breast cancer

Despite advances in managing and curing some forms of breast cancer, women whose disease becomes metastatic have fewer effective options. A new phase 3 study in some of the most difficult-to-treat patients, women with endocrine-resistant disease, showed that the newly approved drug, palbociclib, more than doubled the time to cancer recurrence for women with hormone-receptor (HR+) positive metastatic breast cancer. [More]
Data supporting anti-cancer potential of Biscayne’s GHRH antagonist to be discussed at ASCO Annual Meeting

Data supporting anti-cancer potential of Biscayne’s GHRH antagonist to be discussed at ASCO Annual Meeting

Biscayne Pharmaceuticals, Inc., today announced that data supporting the anti-cancer potential of its growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) technology will be discussed in a poster presentation at the 2015 ASCO Annual Meeting. [More]
Study reveals molecular basis for endocrine therapy-resistant breast cancer

Study reveals molecular basis for endocrine therapy-resistant breast cancer

Mitsuyoshi Nakao, Director of the Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics in Kumamoto University and Associate Professor Noriko Saitoh revealed that a cluster of defined, non-coding RNAs are mechanistically involved in endocrine therapy resistance in human breast cancer cells. Furthermore, resveratrol, a kind of polyphenol, was found to repress these RNAs and inhibit the proliferative activity of breast cancer cells which had acquired resistance. [More]
Previous motherhood alters cognition, neuroplasticity in response to hormone therapy

Previous motherhood alters cognition, neuroplasticity in response to hormone therapy

Hormone therapy (HT) is prescribed to alleviate some of the symptoms of menopause in women. Menopausal women are more likely to be diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease but not other forms of dementia, and HT has been prescribed to treat cognitive decline in post-menopausal women with variable degrees of effectiveness. [More]
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