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Estrogens are a family of related molecules that stimulate the development and maintenance of female characteristics and sexual reproduction.

The natural estrogens produced by women are steroid molecules, which means that they are derived from a particular type of molecular skeleton containing four rings of carbon atoms, giving the shape shown here. The most prevalent forms of human estrogen are estradiol and estrone. Both are produced and secreted by the ovaries, although estrone is also made in the adrenal glands and other organs.
Gene expression patterns of normal tissue may predict survival rates of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients

Gene expression patterns of normal tissue may predict survival rates of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients

Breast tissue surrounding tumors could be used to gauge future survival outcomes for women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, a study led by University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers has found. [More]
Researchers spot molecular key that breast cancer cells use to invade bone marrow

Researchers spot molecular key that breast cancer cells use to invade bone marrow

Scientists at the Duke Cancer Institute have identified a molecular key that breast cancer cells use to invade bone marrow in mice, where they may be protected from chemotherapy or hormonal therapies that could otherwise eradicate them. [More]
ANK3 and other genes may play key role in affecting mood, stress and longevity

ANK3 and other genes may play key role in affecting mood, stress and longevity

The visible impacts of depression and stress that can be seen in a person's face -- and contribute to shorter lives -- can also be found in alterations in genetic activity, according to newly published research. [More]
Vitamin D and androgen receptor-targeted therapy may help treat TNBC

Vitamin D and androgen receptor-targeted therapy may help treat TNBC

A recent study by researchers at Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine revealed that triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which has generally been unresponsive to hormone receptor-targeted treatments, can indeed be treated using vitamin D and androgen receptor-targeted therapy. [More]
Investigational drug abemaciclib shows durable clinical activity for variety of cancer types

Investigational drug abemaciclib shows durable clinical activity for variety of cancer types

The investigational anticancer therapeutic abemaciclib, which targets CDK4 and CDK6, showed durable clinical activity when given as continuous single-agent therapy to patients with a variety of cancer types, including breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), glioblastoma, and melanoma, according to results from a phase I clinical trial. [More]
DECT trial shows combination of epirubicin and trastuzumab improves outcomes in breast cancer patients

DECT trial shows combination of epirubicin and trastuzumab improves outcomes in breast cancer patients

The study entitled "A phase II neoadjuvant sequential regimen of docetaxel followed by high-dose epirubicin in combination with cyclophosphamide administered concurrently with trastuzumab. [More]
EAD therapy can shrink size of triple-negative breast cancer tumors in mice

EAD therapy can shrink size of triple-negative breast cancer tumors in mice

In a new study using mice and lab-grown human cells, a scientific team led by Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers show how a triple-drug cocktail can shrink triple-negative breast cancers by killing off cancer cells and halting new tumor growth. [More]
Researchers identify low MCJ expression as marker of poor response to chemotherapy

Researchers identify low MCJ expression as marker of poor response to chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a key part of the standard treatment regimen for triple-negative breast cancer patients whose cancer lacks expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). [More]
Biovica acquires cSens AB - creating opportunities for solving cancer diagnostic challenges

Biovica acquires cSens AB - creating opportunities for solving cancer diagnostic challenges

Biovica has acquired cSens AB, a company that has developed a PCR-based platform for the analysis of serum thymidine kinase (TK) enzyme activity, which correspond to tumor proliferation and cancer aggressiveness. [More]
Estrogen-inhibiting drug may suppress dangerous brain seizures

Estrogen-inhibiting drug may suppress dangerous brain seizures

A class of drug that inhibits estrogen production and is used to treat breast cancer has been found to quickly and effectively suppress dangerous brain seizures, according to a new Northwestern University study. [More]
Easy-to-follow care pathway assists health professionals with latest post-reproductive health strategies

Easy-to-follow care pathway assists health professionals with latest post-reproductive health strategies

A new position statement by the European Menopause and Andropause Society published in the journal Maturitas provides a pathway with the latest post-reproductive health strategies, with the aim of optimizing care at an international scale. [More]
Combination of existing chemotherapy drugs can reduce breast cancer stem cells, improve survival

Combination of existing chemotherapy drugs can reduce breast cancer stem cells, improve survival

Two existing chemotherapy drugs appear to be a powerful pair in targeting errant stem cells that are making breast cancer and enabling its spread and recurrence, scientists report. [More]
UW-Madison researchers develop quick, saliva-based test for measuring fertility hormone levels

UW-Madison researchers develop quick, saliva-based test for measuring fertility hormone levels

Doubts about their ability to become pregnant affect as many as 25 percent of American women, and solving that problem is the basic business plan for BluDiagnostics. Although the startup company was born in the University of Wisconsin-Madison Biochemistry Department, co-founder Katie Brenner says the idea came directly from her own difficulty with conception. [More]

Predictive statistical approach opens door to development of more effective therapies for breast cancer

Designing effective new drugs, especially drugs to fight cancer, demands that you know as much as you can about the molecular workings of cancer growth. Without that, it's like planning to fight a war against an enemy you've never seen. [More]
Effects of BPA on embryos in females undergoing IVF

Effects of BPA on embryos in females undergoing IVF

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical that is used in a variety of consumer products, such as water bottles, metal food and beverage containers, and thermal paper cash register receipts. [More]
New class of cancer-driver gene may serve as unique therapeutic targets, biomarkers in TNBC

New class of cancer-driver gene may serve as unique therapeutic targets, biomarkers in TNBC

The discovery of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has dramatically changed the understanding of the biology of diseases such as cancer. The human genome contains about 20,000 protein-coding genes - less than 2 percent of the total - but 70 percent of the genome is made into non-gene-encoding RNA. [More]
Probiotic supplements may help treat post-menopausal osteoporosis

Probiotic supplements may help treat post-menopausal osteoporosis

Probiotic supplements protected female mice from the loss of bone density that occurs after having their ovaries removed, researchers at Emory University School of Medicine and Georgia State University have shown. [More]
Derivatives of female sex hormones can influence natural melanin production, study suggests

Derivatives of female sex hormones can influence natural melanin production, study suggests

When skin cells responsible for pigmentation are exposed to estrogen or progesterone, the cells respond by adjusting their melanin production, resulting in either skin darkening or lightening. Although pregnant women often experience alterations in skin pigmentation, the reason for the changes has long puzzled physicians. [More]
Researchers gain new insights into female pelvis development

Researchers gain new insights into female pelvis development

Women have wider hips than men because their pelves must allow for the birth of large-brained babies. Nevertheless, many female pelves are still not wide enough, which can result in difficult births. Traditionally, the human pelvis has been considered an evolutionary compromise between birthing and walking upright; a wider pelvis would compromise efficient bipedal locomotion. But this hypothesis has now been called into question: According to new studies, wide hips do not reduce locomotor efficiency. [More]
Modulation of estrobolome may help lower breast cancer risk

Modulation of estrobolome may help lower breast cancer risk

Investigating disparities in the composition of the estrobolome, the gut bacterial genes capable of metabolizing estrogens in both healthy individuals and in women diagnosed with estrogen-driven breast cancer may lead to the development of microbiome-based biomarkers that could help mitigate the risk of certain cancers, according to a review paper published April 22 in the JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. [More]
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