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Estrogens are a family of related molecules that stimulate the development and maintenance of female characteristics and sexual reproduction.

The natural estrogens produced by women are steroid molecules, which means that they are derived from a particular type of molecular skeleton containing four rings of carbon atoms, giving the shape shown here. The most prevalent forms of human estrogen are estradiol and estrone. Both are produced and secreted by the ovaries, although estrone is also made in the adrenal glands and other organs.
Current menopausal hormone therapy users at increased risk of experiencing GI bleeding

Current menopausal hormone therapy users at increased risk of experiencing GI bleeding

Current users of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) are more than twice as likely than non-users to develop lower gastrointestinal bleeding and ischemic colitis, especially if they use the therapy for longer durations, according to a study at Digestive Disease Week 2015. [More]
DNMT1 gene essential to maintain breast and cancer stem cells

DNMT1 gene essential to maintain breast and cancer stem cells

The gene and hormone soup that enables women to breastfeed their newborns also can be a recipe for breast cancer, particularly when the first pregnancy is after age 30. [More]
SLU professor reveals why women have higher rates of strokes than men, suggests steps to reduce risk

SLU professor reveals why women have higher rates of strokes than men, suggests steps to reduce risk

Each year, around 55,000 more women than men will have a stroke. Longer lifespans, pregnancies and hormones all contribute to the disparity, as do illnesses that tend to strike women more frequently. Crunch the numbers and the math adds up to more strokes for women, making it important for women monitor their risk. [More]
Noninvasive nuclear medicine test can help determine effectiveness of aromatase inhibitor treatment

Noninvasive nuclear medicine test can help determine effectiveness of aromatase inhibitor treatment

A new, noninvasive nuclear medicine test can be used to determine whether aromatase inhibitor treatment will be effective for specific cancer patients, according to a recent study reported in The Journal of Nuclear Medicine. [More]
Scientists solve mystery about the origin of ovarian cell

Scientists solve mystery about the origin of ovarian cell

Scientists at the National Institutes of Health have solved a long-standing mystery about the origin of one of the cell types that make up the ovary. The team also discovered how ovarian cells share information during development of an ovarian follicle, which holds the maturing egg. [More]
Scientists report that enzyme that alters testosterone to estrogen has big impact in healthy, injured brain

Scientists report that enzyme that alters testosterone to estrogen has big impact in healthy, injured brain

An enzyme that converts testosterone to estrogen appears to have significant impact in a healthy and injured brain, scientists report. [More]
Scientists reveal complex role of soy in preventing and advancing breast cancer

Scientists reveal complex role of soy in preventing and advancing breast cancer

Scientists have mapped the human genes triggered by the phytonutrients in soy, revealing the complex role the legume plays in both preventing and advancing breast cancer. [More]
Study findings challenge current thinking on BPA toxicology

Study findings challenge current thinking on BPA toxicology

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health researchers say that while a large majority of newborns are exposed in their earliest days to bisphenol A (BPA), a much-studied chemical used in plastics and in food and soda can linings, they can chemically alter and rid their bodies of it. [More]
Botanical formula improves effect of tamoxifen drug in ER+ human breast cancer

Botanical formula improves effect of tamoxifen drug in ER+ human breast cancer

Researchers at the Cancer Research Laboratory, Methodist Research Institute, Indiana University Health found that a botanical formula for breast health inhibited the growth of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) human breast cancer cells. More importantly, the researchers also found that the formula enhanced the anti-cancer benefits of the drug tamoxifen in the treatment of breast cancer. [More]
Smoking and genetics can increase women's likelihood of giving birth to twins

Smoking and genetics can increase women's likelihood of giving birth to twins

African American mothers who smoke and have a genetic profile that includes a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the TP53 gene have an increased likelihood of having twins, concluded a team of researchers from the University of South Florida and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. [More]
New combination therapy could overcome treatment resistance, relapse in breast cancer

New combination therapy could overcome treatment resistance, relapse in breast cancer

Researchers from The University of Manchester working with drug development company Evgen Pharma, have developed a new combination of drugs which could overcome treatment resistance and relapse in breast cancer. [More]
Experimental immune therapy generally safe, well-tolerated in women with triple-negative breast cancer

Experimental immune therapy generally safe, well-tolerated in women with triple-negative breast cancer

Early data in a preliminary human study show that an experimental immune system drug is generally safe and well tolerated in women with metastatic, triple-negative breast cancer, a persistently difficult form of the disease to treat. [More]
Study finds no strong link between lung cancer risk and reproductive history variables

Study finds no strong link between lung cancer risk and reproductive history variables

The Women's Health Initiative Studies, a large prospective study of lung cancer, found no strong associations between lung cancer risk and a wide range of reproductive history variables and only revealed weak support for a role of hormone use in the incidence of lung cancer. [More]
New study could point to potential ways to address defects in learning, memory

New study could point to potential ways to address defects in learning, memory

Just as some people seem built to run marathons and have an easier time going for miles without tiring, others are born with a knack for memorizing things, from times tables to trivia facts. These two skills—running and memorizing—are not so different as it turns out. [More]
Researchers discover genetic factors key to POMC cells

Researchers discover genetic factors key to POMC cells

The little voice inside your head that tells you to eat, or stop eating, isn't a little voice - it's actually a cluster of about 10,000 specialized brain cells. And now, an international team of scientists has found tiny triggers inside those cells that give rise to this "voice", and keep it speaking throughout life. [More]
Combination of signaling molecules can inhibit growth of breast cancer cells

Combination of signaling molecules can inhibit growth of breast cancer cells

Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have uncovered how the body's inflammatory response can alter how estrogen promotes the growth of breast cancer cells. [More]
Investigational S-equol nutritional supplement may alleviate certain menopause symptoms

Investigational S-equol nutritional supplement may alleviate certain menopause symptoms

The investigational S-equol nutritional supplement may be a viable agent to alleviate certain menopause symptoms, such as hot flashes, according to a new peer-reviewed article in the March Journal of Women's Health. [More]
Society for Reproductive Investigation awards two top honors to Dr. Ayman Al-Hendy

Society for Reproductive Investigation awards two top honors to Dr. Ayman Al-Hendy

Dr. Ayman Al-Hendy, an obstetrician-gynecologist and molecular biologist at the Medical College of Georgia at Georgia Regents University and GRHealth, has received two top honors from the Society for Reproductive Investigation. [More]
Study compares cost, benefits, complications of uterine-sparing treatments for fibroids

Study compares cost, benefits, complications of uterine-sparing treatments for fibroids

The relative cost, benefits, and complications of three minimally invasive techniques for reducing or eliminating symptomatic uterine fibroids are being compared in women who don't have cancer and want to preserve their uterus. [More]
Penn State surgeon provides guidelines for diagnosis, management of endometriosis

Penn State surgeon provides guidelines for diagnosis, management of endometriosis

Endometriosis is difficult to diagnose, with women often being told for years that they are experiencing their 'normal period.' According to the Endometriosis Foundation of America, it affects one in ten women. [More]
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