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Meningitis is an infection of the fluid of a person's spinal cord and the fluid that surrounds the brain. People sometimes refer to it as spinal meningitis. Meningitis is usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection. Knowing whether meningitis is caused by a virus or bacterium is important because the severity of illness and the treatment differ. Viral meningitis is generally less severe and resolves without specific treatment, while bacterial meningitis can be quite severe and may result in brain damage, hearing loss, or learning disability. For bacterial meningitis, it is also important to know which type of bacteria is causing the meningitis because antibiotics can prevent some types from spreading and infecting other people. Before the 1990s, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, but new vaccines being given to all children as part of their routine immunizations have reduced the occurrence of invasive disease due to H. influenzae. Today, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the leading causes of bacterial meningitis.
Findings reveal a new way to prevent meningitis

Findings reveal a new way to prevent meningitis

The fungus Cryptococcus causes meningitis, a brain disease that kills about 1 million people each year — mainly those with impaired immune systems due to AIDS, cancer treatment or an organ transplant. [More]
California Initiative to Advance Precision Medicine selects two demonstration projects

California Initiative to Advance Precision Medicine selects two demonstration projects

Two demonstration projects that aim to yield quick results for patients have been selected by the new California Initiative to Advance Precision Medicine, a public-private effort launched by Governor Edmund G. Brown Jr. [More]
Shortage of meningitis C-containing vaccine threatens to limit disease control in Africa

Shortage of meningitis C-containing vaccine threatens to limit disease control in Africa

With Africa at risk of a large meningitis outbreak, an acute shortage of meningitis C-containing vaccine threatens to severely limit the world's ability to minimize the number of people affected, four international public health organizations warned today. [More]
Cincinnati Children's doctors remind parents about the importance of immunizing kids before sending them to school

Cincinnati Children's doctors remind parents about the importance of immunizing kids before sending them to school

Doctors at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center want to remind parents about the importance of immunizing their children when preparing to send their children back to school. [More]
SutroVax completes $22 million Series A financing

SutroVax completes $22 million Series A financing

SutroVax, a recently established biopharmaceutical vaccine company, today announced the completion of a $22 million Series A financing. SutroVax is developing vaccines for infectious disease targets, with an initial emphasis on best-in-class conjugate vaccines, using an exclusive license to Sutro Biopharma's Xpress CF and Xpress CF+ platforms for cell free protein synthesis and site-specific conjugation respectively. [More]
Oxford University performs second phase of experimental Ebola vaccine trial

Oxford University performs second phase of experimental Ebola vaccine trial

Oxford University doctors and scientists are performing the second phase of clinical studies of an experimental Ebola vaccine regimen. The study is part of the EBOVAC2 project, a collaborative programme involving the University of Oxford, French Institute of Health and Medical Research as project coordinator, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Le Centre Muraz, Inserm Transfert and the Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson. [More]
Study analyzes attitudes and practices of general physicians in different vaccination scenarios

Study analyzes attitudes and practices of general physicians in different vaccination scenarios

At population level, vaccines contribute to reducing mortality associated with infectious diseases such as measles, diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis B or bacterial meningitis. [More]
NIH-sponsored clinical trial evaluates new investigational vaccine against West Nile Virus infection

NIH-sponsored clinical trial evaluates new investigational vaccine against West Nile Virus infection

A clinical trial of a new investigational vaccine designed to protect against West Nile Virus infection will be sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health. [More]
Researchers awarded grant from British Council to reduce burden of infectious disease in Malaysia

Researchers awarded grant from British Council to reduce burden of infectious disease in Malaysia

A group of collaborators led by the University of Southampton have been awarded a British Council Newton Fund Institutional Links Grant to support ground-breaking research towards reducing the burden of infectious disease in Malaysia. [More]
SLU's Center for Vaccine Development receives $2.9 million to study new vaccine to combat TB

SLU's Center for Vaccine Development receives $2.9 million to study new vaccine to combat TB

Saint Louis University's Center for Vaccine Development has received a $2.9 million award from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to study a new tuberculosis vaccine. [More]
Researchers develop device to diagnose bacterial meningitis in babies

Researchers develop device to diagnose bacterial meningitis in babies

Currently the only test to diagnose bacterial meningitis in babies is through a lumbar puncture, a painful and difficult procedure to perform. For this reason, a group of biomedical engineers decided to search for an alternative and developed a portable device that can detect this illness with a simple ultrasound scan of the fontanelle. [More]
Second-generation antibiotic shows promise against common bacterial infections

Second-generation antibiotic shows promise against common bacterial infections

Researchers led by St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists have developed a second-generation antibiotic that shows early effectiveness against common bacterial infections that pose a serious health threat to children and adults. [More]
WHO: Progress towards global vaccination targets 'far off track'

WHO: Progress towards global vaccination targets 'far off track'

Progress towards global vaccination targets for 2015 is far off track with 1 in 5 children still missing out on routine life-saving immunizations that could avert 1.5 million deaths each year from preventable diseases. In the lead-up to World Immunization Week 2015 (24 -30 April), the World Health Organization is calling for renewed efforts to get progress back on course. [More]
Inflammation plays causal role in neurologic changes associated with Lyme disease

Inflammation plays causal role in neurologic changes associated with Lyme disease

About 15% of patients with Lyme disease develop peripheral and central nervous system involvement, often accompanied by debilitating and painful symptoms. New research indicates that inflammation plays a causal role in the array of neurologic changes associated with Lyme disease, according to a study published in The American Journal of Pathology. [More]
Study suggests new approach to help prevent meningococcal outbreaks

Study suggests new approach to help prevent meningococcal outbreaks

Nasal drops of harmless bacteria can inhibit a related bug that sometimes causes meningococcal disease, according to new findings published online in Clinical Infectious Diseases. The study--conducted among college students, a group at higher risk for this often serious illness--suggests a new approach that could help suppress outbreaks of the disease, if supported by future research. [More]
IV cosyntropin therapy matches EBP in relieving pain from post-dural puncture headache

IV cosyntropin therapy matches EBP in relieving pain from post-dural puncture headache

Intravenous (IV) cosyntropin therapy was equivalent to epidural blood patch (EBP) in relieving pain from post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) with potential for fewer complications and lower costs, data from a randomized, controlled trial showed. [More]
Study: Countries most affected by Ebola outbreak may soon have 100,000 more measles cases

Study: Countries most affected by Ebola outbreak may soon have 100,000 more measles cases

An international study involving the University of Southampton suggests there could be a rise in measles cases of 100,000 across the three countries most affected by the Ebola outbreak in West Africa due to health system disruptions. [More]
Ebola crisis increases susceptibility to measles, other vaccine-preventable illnesses

Ebola crisis increases susceptibility to measles, other vaccine-preventable illnesses

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health researchers say that major disruptions in the health care systems in West Africa caused by the Ebola crisis have led to significant decreases in vaccinations for childhood diseases, increasing susceptibility to measles and other vaccine-preventable illnesses. [More]
Simple low-cost intervention could help reduce HIV-related deaths in Africa

Simple low-cost intervention could help reduce HIV-related deaths in Africa

A new approach to care for patients with advanced HIV in Tanzania and Zambia, combining community support and screening for a type of meningitis, has reduced deaths by 28%. [More]
Efficacy of ebola vaccine to be assessed in large-scale clinical trial

Efficacy of ebola vaccine to be assessed in large-scale clinical trial

GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) announced today that they will soon be commencing the first large-scale clinical trial to assess the efficacy of an experimental ebola vaccine. [More]
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