The treatment for Low Blood Pressure / hypotension depends on its cause. Chronic hypotension rarely exists as more than a symptom. There are, however, some ways to raise blood pressure and avoid the unwanted symptoms of hypotension.
1. Drink at least 8 cups of water a day
2. Incorporate sodium in your diet
3. Follow a low carbohydrate diet (avoid starchy foods such as potatoes, rice, pasta, and bread)
4. Limit caffeine intake
5. Don’t remain standing for long periods of time
6. Add moderate exercise such as walking and/or biking
If you experience symptoms of hypotension on a regular basis, consult with your physician before trying any home remedies. If you feel your blood pressure plummeting: sit down and lower your head between your knees. This provides the necessary oxygen to your brain to sustain consciousness.
Asymptomatic hypotension in healthy people usually does not require treatment. Adding electrolytes to a diet can also relieve symptoms of mild hypotension. In mild cases, where the patient is still responsive, laying the person in dorsal decubitus (lying on the back) position and lifting the legs will increase venous return, thus making more blood available to critical organs at the chest and head. The Trendelenburg position, though used historically, is no longer recommended.
The treatment of hypotensive shock always follows the first four following steps. Outcomes, in terms of mortality, are directly linked to the speed in which hypotension is corrected. In parentheses are the still debated methods for achieving, and benchmarks for evaluating, progress in correcting hypotension. A study on ''Early Goal Directed Therapy'' provided the delineation of these general principles. However, since it focuses on hypotension due to infection, it is not applicable to all forms of severe hypotension.
- Volume Recussitation (usually with crystalloid)
- Blood Pressure Support (with norepinephrine or equivalent)
- Ensure adequate tissue perfusion (maintain SvO2 >70 with use of blood or additional vasopressors)
- Address the underlying problem (i.e. antibiotic for infection, stent or CABG for infarction, steroids for adrenal insufficiency, etc...)
- Medium term (and less well demonstrated) treatments of hypotension include:
- 5. Blood sugar control (80-150 by one study)
- 6. Early nutrition (PO or by tube to prevent ileus)
- 7. Steroid support
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