In classical terms, thrombosis is caused by abnormalities in one or more of the following (Virchow's triad):
- The composition of the blood (hypercoagulability)
- Quality of the vessel wall (endothelial cell injury)
- Nature of the blood flow
The formation of a thrombus is usually caused by Virchow's triad. To elaborate, the pathogenesis includes: an injury to the vessel's wall (such as by trauma, infection, or turbulent flow at bifurcations); by the slowing or stagnation of blood flow past the point of injury (which may occur after long periods of sedentary behavior—for example, sitting on a long airplane flight); by a blood state of hypercoagulability (caused for example, by genetic deficiencies or autoimmune disorders).
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