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Valproic Acid Side Effects

By , BPharm

Valproic acid is a useful medication that is indicated for several health conditions but may lead to significant side effects in some individuals. There are a large number of possible adverse effects that have an impact on many different organs and systems in the body.

Severe Effects

In some cases, individuals may be allergic to valproic acid, leading to a potentially dangerous situation when an allergic reaction occurs. If patients notice signs of hypersensitivity, they should seek medical advice as soon as possible to prevent unfavorable outcomes.

Valproic acid has the potential to cause life-threatening damage to the liver, particularly for young children taking multiple medications in the first six months of therapy.

It can also cause serious damage to the pancreas that has fatal potential. Pain in the stomach area and back, accompanied by nausea, vomiting or loss of appetite may be indicative of pancreatitis and warrants further investigation and possible treatment.

Pregnant women and women who are planning to become pregnant in the near future should be advised against taking valproic acid, as there is a high risk of birth defects. It is recommended that all women of childbearing age take appropriate contraceptive precautions to avoid conceiving whilst being treated with valproic acid.

Gastrointestinal Effects

Gastrointestinal complications are the most common side effects associated with the use of valproic acid. These effects may include:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Dyspepsia
  • Gingival disorder
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Constipation
  • Dry mouth
  • Fecal incontinence
  • Flatulence
  • Gastralgia
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Pancreatitis

Most of these effects are transient and subside with continued use or upon removal of the medication.

Hepatic Effects

It is common for liver enzymes such as bilirubin to increase as a result of therapy with valproic acid, particularly in the initial stages of treatment. This can lead to injury and damage to the liver and possible hepatic failure.

If signs of hepatic dysfunction become evident, such as elevation of transaminases and amylase in the blood, it is recommended to reduce the dose to manage this.

Nervous System

Side effects related to the nervous system that commonly occur to people taking valproic acid treatments include:

  • Dizziness
  • Headache
  • Tremor
  • Abnormal gait
  • Convulsion
  • Incoordination
  • Enhanced reflexes
  • Memory impairment
  • Dyskinesia

Cardiovascular

Common cardiovascular adverse effects include:

  • Edema
  • Hypertension
  • Hypotension
  • Tachycardia
  • Peripheral edema

Dermatological

Common dermatological adverse effects that occur include:

  • Alopecia
  • Dry skin
  • Rash
  • Itch
  • Seborrhea

Changes in hair growth and increased sweating may also occur, but are less commonly reported.

Genitourinary

Common adverse effects to the genitourinary system include:

  • Amenorrhea
  • Cystitis
  • Dysmenorrhea
  • Dysuria
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Increased frequency of urination
  • Vaginitis

Psychiatric Effects

Common psychiatric side effects include:

  • Nervousness
  • Abnormal dreams
  • Aggression
  • Agitation
  • Confusion
  • Depression
  • Hallucinations
  • Insomnia
  • Attention disorders
  • Behavior abnormalities
  • Hyperactivity
  • Learning disorders

Children taking valproate treatment are particularly prone to learning and attention disorders, hyperactivity and abnormalities in behavior.

Other Effects

There are several other effects to other areas of the body, such as:

  • Hematological: thrombocytopenia, anemia, hemorrhage
  • Musculoskeletal: arthralgia, arthrosis, cramping, myalgia, twitching
  • Ocular: blurred vision, diplopia, abnormal vision, conjunctivitis, dry eyes, eye pain
  • Respiratory: Respiratory infection, dyspnea, cough
  • Gastrointestinal: increased appetite, weight loss or gain, anorexia

Other side effects such as back pain, chills, edema, fever, malaise and other infections may also occur.

This is not a complete list of all the possible side effects of valproic acid and a patient may report other signs as a result of taking the medication. These should be managed appropriately to ensure the optimal health of the individual and reported to regulating bodies to alert future patients that may need to use valproic acid.

References

Further Reading

Last Updated: Jul 20, 2015

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Comments
  1. Gregorio Mollo Alvarez Gregorio Mollo Alvarez Chile says:

    Por dolor de cabeza continuados, el Medico de Medicina general me derivo al Neurólogo y este profesional me después de hacerme exámenes de cerebro y sangre concluyo que yo debo tomar Ácido valproico de 250 mg. dos veces al día. Yo sufrí una perdida de conocimiento hace 20 años y nunca me diagnosticaron  ataque epiléptico eso fue todo lo que tuve. Mi pregunta es ¿ El medicamento ácido valproico 250 mg. que estoy tomando esta bien recetado, y que pasara con mi hígado?.
    Gracias mil por escucharme.
    [email protected]

  2. Myriam Useche Fuentes Myriam Useche Fuentes Colombia says:

    EL ACIDO VALPROICO ME ALTERO TOTALMENTE, AHORA SUFRO DE SOBREPESO LOS MEDICOS DICEN QUE ESO NO TIENE NADA QUE VER, PERO REALMENTE ME ALTERO HORMONALMENTE IGUAL NUNCA SOLUCIONO,  NADA NO TOMEN ESA PORQUERIA ADEMAS ME DEBILITO LA DENTADURA, Y SE ME CAE EL CABELLO.

The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of News-Medical.Net.
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