In the first worldwide study of its kind, scientists from Toronto's Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) found evidence that heavy methamphetamine users might have a higher risk of developing schizophrenia. This finding was based on a large study comparing the risk among methamphetamine users not only to a group that did not use drugs, but also to heavy users of other drugs.
The report will be published online on Nov. 8, 2011, at AJP in Advance, the advance edition of the American Journal of Psychiatry, the official journal of the American Psychiatric Association.
Methamphetamine and other amphetamine-type stimulants are the second most common type of illicit drug used worldwide.
"We found that people hospitalized for methamphetamine dependence who did not have a diagnosis of schizophrenia or psychotic symptoms at the start of our study period had an approximately 1.5 to 3.0-fold risk of subsequently being diagnosed with schizophrenia, compared with groups of patients who used cocaine, alcohol or opioid drugs," says Dr. Russ Callaghan, the CAMH scientist who led the study. Dr. Callaghan also found that the increased risk of schizophrenia in methamphetamine users was similar to that of heavy users of cannabis.
To establish this association, the researchers examined California hospital records of patients admitted between 1990 and 2000 with diagnosis of dependence or abuse for several major abused drugs: methamphetamine, cannabis, alcohol, cocaine or opioids. They also included a control group of patients with appendicitis and no drug use. The methamphetamine group had 42,412 cases, while cannabis had 23,335.
Records were excluded if patients were dependent on more than one drug or had a diagnosis of schizophrenia or drug-induced psychosis during their initial hospitalization. Readmission records within California hospitals were analyzed for up to 10 years after the initial admission. The researchers then identified patients who were readmitted with a schizophrenia diagnosis in each drug group.