Glen Palmer, PhD, Assistant Professor of Microbiology, Immunology & Parasitology at LSU Health Sciences Center New Orleans, was part of an international research team led by Luigina Romani, MD, at the University of Perugia, that discovered opportunistic fungi like Candida albicans can sense the immune status of host cells and adapt, evading immune system defenses. Unlike previous studies, this research investigated both sides of the infection equation as well as the interaction between the fungi and the cells they will invade. The findings are published online in Nature Communications in the most recent articles section (February 21, 2012).
This study demonstrates that this process is much more elaborate and complex than previously understood. The researchers determined that C. albicans binds to the host immune signaling molecule, Interleukin (IL) 17A, which permits the fungus to navigate and tolerate the active immune environment of healthy host tissue, mounting effective countermeasures. IL-17A may also contribute to disease susceptibility by modifying the intrinsic virulence of the fungus. This study provides molecular evidence that by exploiting IL-17A, the fungus not only survives, but can cause disease to develop.
"It's a bit like the fungus is listening in to the conversations our immune system is having so it can best determine how to react and survive in our tissues. This may also be a crucial step in determining when this opportunist decides to invade host tissue and cause life-threatening disease in an immunosuppressed patient," notes Dr. Palmer.