According to new research published Online First in The Lancet, body mass index (BMI) may influence which blood pressure medications work best at reducing the major complications of high blood pressure (strokes, heart attacks, and death). The findings suggest that diuretic drugs seem to be a reasonable choice for obese patients, but significantly increase the risk of cardiovascular events in non-obese individuals. Calcium channel blockers, meanwhile, work equally well in people in all weight groups, including lean individuals.
“These findings could change the way high blood pressure (hypertension) is treated and should be of practical help to clinicians in selecting the type of combination treatment most likely to benefit individual patients”, says Michael Weber from the State University of New York’s Downstate Medical Center who led the research. “Importantly, they suggest that hypertension in obese and lean patients is probably mediated by different forms of underlying disease processes.”
Weber and colleagues conducted a subanalysis of the international ACCOMPLISH trial that compared the impact of two single-pill drug combinations—benazepril (ACE inhibitor) plus the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide, and benazepril plus amlodipine (calcium channel blocker)— on the long-term health of people with high blood pressure at high risk of heart disease.
The researchers grouped 11482 participants according to three body mass index categories (normal weight, overweight, and obese) to assess the effects of body mass index and different treatment regimens on heart-related events (cardiovascular deaths, hearts attacks, and strokes).
The analysis showed that in people assigned to the diuretic combination a normal BMI was associated with significantly worse outcomes—a 68% higher event rate—than a high BMI.
In contrast, the benazepril and amlodipine combination was equally effective across all weight categories. What is more, compared with the diuretic regimen, the combination of benazepril and amlodipine significantly reduced heart-related events in normal weight (difference 43%) and overweight (24%) individuals.
Both treatments worked as well in obese people, with no major difference in outcomes recorded between the two regimens.