Using your bicycle to commute to work has numerous health and environmental benefits. Yet, the largest Canadian study on cycling injuries led by Ryerson University suggests cyclists are at risk of injury due to the lack of cycling infrastructure in large urban centres.
"Previous studies have focused on the measures such as helmets that reduce harm after a crash occurs," says Anne Harris, lead author of the study, who is an avid cyclist herself and an assistant professor with Ryerson's School of Occupational and Public Health. "Our study is one of the first to take a comprehensive look at how route infrastructure, particularly at intersections and major roadways, might influence the risk of cyclist injury in Canada."
North American cyclists are eight to 30 more times likely to be seriously injured while cycling than their counterparts in Germany, Denmark and The Netherlands. Harris says one explanation could be the availability of segregated bike lanes in those countries.
The major findings of the Ryerson's School of Occupational and Public Health study are:
Intersections - safer
•Intersections at residential streets
•Cars travelling 30 km and under decreases the risk of injuring a cyclist by half
Intersections - less safe
•Traffic circles: designed as a traffic calming measure, actually increase the risk of cyclist injuries. In the study, 19 out of 690 accidents occurred in Vancouver intersections with traffic circles
•Grade: roads that slope downhill are more dangerous than uphill roads
•Arriving at the intersection in the opposite direction of vehicular traffic
Non-intersections - safer
•Separated bike lanes along major streets
•Bike routes with traffic diversion on local streets
•Bike-only paths separated from traffic
Non-intersections - less safe
•Construction at site
•Shared bike lanes or single bike lanes with parked cars present
The researchers also found that painted and shared bike lanes commonly found in Toronto offered no significant protection for cyclists.
"Our research demonstrates that transportation planners really need to segregate cyclists from motor vehicle traffic just as we use sidewalks to separate pedestrians," says Harris. "If people see cycling as a safer activity, they would be more encouraged to commute by bike, which makes them more active and healthy citizens."