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Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food people eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body.

After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach.

When people eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into the cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body in the urine. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose.
Pre-pregnancy maternal weight has significant impact on baby's immune system

Pre-pregnancy maternal weight has significant impact on baby's immune system

Almost 60 percent of women of childbearing age in the United States are overweight or obese. Obesity is a major public health issue, and has been linked to health problems like heart disease, cancer and hypertension. It can complicate pregnancy by increasing the mother's risk of having gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, preterm birth or a baby with birth defects. Maternal obesity is also linked to several adverse health outcomes for the infant that can persist into adulthood, such as type-2 diabetes, heart disease and mortality. [More]
Leptin resistance not a possible cause of obesity, scientists find

Leptin resistance not a possible cause of obesity, scientists find

For years, scientists have pointed to leptin resistance as a possible cause of obesity. Research led by investigators at the University of Cincinnati (UC) Metabolic Diseases Institute, however, found that leptin action isn't the culprit. [More]
MIT researchers find way to develop implantable devices that can avoid scar-tissue buildup

MIT researchers find way to develop implantable devices that can avoid scar-tissue buildup

Biomedical devices that can be implanted in the body for drug delivery, tissue engineering, or sensing can help improve treatment for many diseases. However, such devices are often susceptible to attack by the immune system, which can render them useless. [More]
UK's leading experts to discuss new ideas and controversies in obesity at Plymouth symposium

UK's leading experts to discuss new ideas and controversies in obesity at Plymouth symposium

No one health issue has the most impact on human health, or engenders more debate about how to tackle it, than obesity. [More]
Shiftworkers more likely to develop metabolic disorders

Shiftworkers more likely to develop metabolic disorders

Shiftwork is an occupational health risk of growing significance because it is becoming more common and because of its potential influence on health outcomes, possibly increasing health differences between workers of higher vs lower socioeconomic status. [More]
Botulinum toxin A effective for treating bladder disorders

Botulinum toxin A effective for treating bladder disorders

While Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A), known to the public as Botox, is commonly associated with smoothing wrinkles for a more youthful appearance, three studies presented at the 110th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Urological Association are proving BTX-A to be more than just a cosmetic solution. [More]
Handshakes better than your blood pressure at assessing your health

Handshakes better than your blood pressure at assessing your health

The firmness of your hand grip is better than your blood pressure at assessing your health, Hamilton researchers have found, and reduced muscular strength, measured by your grip, is consistently linked with early death, disability and illness. [More]
Sheffield scientists to showcase novel medical discoveries during International Clinical Trials Day

Sheffield scientists to showcase novel medical discoveries during International Clinical Trials Day

WORLD-leading researchers and scientists from Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Foundation Trust and the University of Sheffield will be giving people in Sheffield and beyond a unique insight into how they can contribute to groundbreaking medical discoveries during International Clinical Trials Day (Wednesday 20 May 2015). [More]
Study evaluates prenatal nutrition and genome-wide DNA patterns in adults exposed to malnutrition

Study evaluates prenatal nutrition and genome-wide DNA patterns in adults exposed to malnutrition

Researchers at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health and Leiden University in the Netherlands found that children whose mothers were malnourished at famine levels during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy had changes in DNA methylation known to suppress genes involved in growth, development, and metabolism documented at age 59. [More]
MD Anderson researchers find significant clinical variations among liver cancer patients

MD Anderson researchers find significant clinical variations among liver cancer patients

Significant clinical variations exist among patients with the most common type of liver cancer called hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), depending on the viral cause of the disease -hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). These differences suggest that hepatitis status should be considered when developing treatment plans for newly diagnosed patients, according to researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. [More]
Canadian Pacific, Heart and Stroke Foundation team up to improve health of all Canadians

Canadian Pacific, Heart and Stroke Foundation team up to improve health of all Canadians

Canadian Pacific and the Heart and Stroke Foundation today are teaming up to save lives and improve the health of all Canadians through the funding of research excellence in Canada. The commitment of $3 million over three years towards cardiac research represents the largest partnership in the Foundation's history. [More]
Regulatory T cells can cure inflammatory diseases, shows research

Regulatory T cells can cure inflammatory diseases, shows research

Scientists at The University of Manchester have made an important discovery about an immune cell which is already being used in immunotherapy to treat diseases such as type I diabetes. [More]
Wearable diagnostic machines presented at Elsevier's 4th International Conference on Bio-Sensing Technology

Wearable diagnostic machines presented at Elsevier's 4th International Conference on Bio-Sensing Technology

Wearable E-skin that can measure heart rate and blood pressure, and paper diagnostic machines the size of a credit card that can give instant readings on blood and saliva samples are two new bio-sensing technologies presented at Elsevier's 4th International Conference on Bio-Sensing Technology in Lisbon, Portugal on 12 May 2015. [More]
Serotonin and TGF-beta pathways link diet to health and ageing

Serotonin and TGF-beta pathways link diet to health and ageing

Diet exerts a major impact on health and ageing. The nervous system plays an important role in this process but, thus far, how food signals are interpreted by the nervous system has been a mystery. [More]
Research finding could lead to better treatments for inflammatory bowel disease

Research finding could lead to better treatments for inflammatory bowel disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) afflicts 1.6 million people in the United States, causing abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, rectal bleeding and other potentially debilitating symptoms. [More]
TGen-led study associates 'X-linked' syndromes to genetic origins

TGen-led study associates 'X-linked' syndromes to genetic origins

A study led by the Translational Genomics Research Institute has for the first time matched dozens of infantile diseases and syndromes involving muscle weakness and stiff joints to their likely genetic origins. [More]
Major breakthrough in understanding development of type 1 diabetes

Major breakthrough in understanding development of type 1 diabetes

Joslin researchers have uncovered the action of a gene that regulates the education of T cells, providing insight into how and why the immune system begins mistaking the body's own tissues for targets. The gene, Clec16a, is one of a suite of genes associated with multiple autoimmune disorders, suggesting it is fundamental to the development of autoimmunity. [More]
Obese people at greater risk of developing cancer

Obese people at greater risk of developing cancer

Cancer is more likely to develop in people who are very overweight (obese), because surplus body fat interferes with various hormone cycles and with glucose and fat metabolism. On the occasion of European Obesity Day this coming Saturday (16 May), metabolic expert Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, Comprehensive Cancer Center at MedUni Vienna and Vienna General Hospital, draws attention to the fact that, even in Austria, more and more people are suffering from obesity. [More]
Misperceptions about miscarriage are widespread, survey finds

Misperceptions about miscarriage are widespread, survey finds

A survey of more than 1,000 U.S. adults has found that misperceptions about miscarriage and its causes are widespread. Results of the survey, conducted by researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University and Montefiore Health System, show that feelings of guilt and shame are common after a miscarriage and that most people erroneously believe that miscarriages are rare. [More]
New Johns Hopkins-led research suggests risk factors for developing acute kidney injury

New Johns Hopkins-led research suggests risk factors for developing acute kidney injury

Physicians treating hospitalized patients for conditions unrelated to the kidneys should pay close attention to common blood and urine tests for kidney function in order to prevent incidental injury to the organs that help cleanse the body of toxins, new Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health-led research suggests. [More]
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