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Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food people eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body.

After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach.

When people eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into the cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body in the urine. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose.
Research roundup: Colonscopy in the countryside; retiree health benefits; what should hip surgery cost?

Research roundup: Colonscopy in the countryside; retiree health benefits; what should hip surgery cost?

Rural residents who commonly seek treatment for advanced stages of colorectal cancer have been thought to lack access to cancer screening and adjuvant therapy. ... Several theories have been postulated to explain these findings, some of which include low socioeconomic status, lower educational attainment, lack of insurance coverage, underinsurance, and travel distance to health care facilities. [More]

New report reveals current state of worldwide advanced wound care market

The Global Market for Advanced Wound Care Products 2014 report provides you with the knowledge to understand the current state of the advanced wound care market, the historical market background and the key companies who currently operate here. It is essential reading for anyone who needs to plan, sell or operate within the advanced wound care product sectors. [More]

Three Johns Hopkins researchers awarded grants for work on potential treatments for diabetes

Three Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine researchers have been awarded two-year grants for their work on potential treatments for diabetes, Novo Nordisk announced this month. Of the 110 initial submissions to the new Novo Nordisk Diabetes and Obesity Biologics Science Forum Program, only four projects were funded, three of which are led by Johns Hopkins researchers. They are Jonathan Powell, M.D., Ph.D.; G. William Wong, Ph.D.; and Elias Zambidis, M.D., Ph.D. [More]
Longer Looks: HIV epidemic in the Deep South; planning for Alzheimer's; Obamacare conspiracy theory

Longer Looks: HIV epidemic in the Deep South; planning for Alzheimer's; Obamacare conspiracy theory

One of the strangest things about the H.I.V. epidemic in the Deep South-;from Louisiana to Alabama to Mississippi-;is how easily most Americans have elided it, choosing instead to imagine that the disease is now an out-there, elsewhere epidemic. [More]

Study: Chronic inflammation associated with aggressive prostate cancer

The presence of chronic inflammation in benign prostate tissue was associated with high-grade, or aggressive, prostate cancer, and this association was found even in those with low prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, according to a study published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. [More]
B1/Cdk1 protein which plays key role in cell division also boosts power of mitochondrial activity

B1/Cdk1 protein which plays key role in cell division also boosts power of mitochondrial activity

​An international team led by researchers at UC Davis has shown that the cyclin B1/Cdk1 protein complex, which plays a key role in cell division, also boosts the mitochondrial activity to power that process. [More]
Adrenaline does not boost long-term survival rates in heart attack patients, says study

Adrenaline does not boost long-term survival rates in heart attack patients, says study

Giving patients adrenaline after they suffer a cardiac arrest outside of a hospital does not increase their prospects of surviving long-term, according to new research conducted at St. Michael's Hospital. [More]
Prenatal risk factors linked with development of chronic kidney disease in children

Prenatal risk factors linked with development of chronic kidney disease in children

Certain prenatal risk factors are associated with the development of chronic kidney disease in children, according to a study appearing in an upcoming issue of the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (JASN). Future studies should investigate whether modifying these factors could help protect children's kidney health. [More]
Discovery could have far-reaching implications for diagnosis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy

Discovery could have far-reaching implications for diagnosis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy

Indiana University researchers have detected new early-warning signs of the potential loss of sight associated with diabetes. This discovery could have far-reaching implications for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy, potentially impacting the care of over 25 million Americans. [More]

First MRI scan shows 'brown fat' in living adult can help fight diabetes

The first MRI scan to show 'brown fat' in a living adult could prove to be an essential step towards a new wave of therapies to aid the fight against diabetes and obesity. [More]

First Edition: April 17, 2014

Today's headlines include reports about emerging political strategies related to the health law and the upcoming congressional elections. [More]
Scientists create new model of memory that provides complete picture of how memory works

Scientists create new model of memory that provides complete picture of how memory works

Scientists at the Salk Institute have created a new model of memory that explains how neurons retain select memories a few hours after an event. [More]

TGen honors two philanthropists for supporting TGen's research on brain, colon and prostate cancer

The Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) recently honored two significant Arizona philanthropists at their annual Founders Dinner for their support of TGen's research into brain, colon and prostate cancer. The event took place March 28 in Scottsdale. [More]

TSRI scientist receives $2.1M grant to study therapeutic potential of alternatives to current crop of anti-diabetic drugs

Scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have been awarded $2.1 million from the National Institutes of Health to study the therapeutic potential of safer and more effective alternatives to the current crop of anti-diabetic drugs, which have been limited in their use due to side effects including bone loss and congestive heart failure. [More]

EKF Diagnostics' new handheld Lactate Scout+ device ideal for checking sports medical health

Following the recent launch of its new Lactate Scout+ analyzer incorporating hematocrit compensation, EKF Diagnostics, the global diagnostics business, is seeing an increasing interest from a broad range of users in both sports and medical science. Consequently, EKF has launched a specific product resource website housing numerous guides and scientific papers on lactate testing. [More]
Waist circumference, body mass index, and postmenopausal breast cancer incidence

Waist circumference, body mass index, and postmenopausal breast cancer incidence

A study of predominantly white women finds a larger waist circumference is associated with higher risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, but not beyond its contribution to BMI. The study, by American Cancer Society researchers, fails to confirm previous findings that body shape itself is an independent risk factor for breast cancer. The current study appears in the April 2014 issue of Cancer Causes, and Control. [More]

NICE recommends FIRMAGON for treating advanced hormone-dependent prostate cancer in adults with spinal metastases

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) today issued its Final Appraisal Determination (FAD) recommending FIRMAGON (degarelix) as an option for treating advanced hormone-dependent prostate cancer, only in adults with spinal metastases who present with signs or symptoms of spinal cord compression. [More]
UC pain researcher solves a long-standing scientific mystery

UC pain researcher solves a long-standing scientific mystery

By solving a long standing scientific mystery, the common saying "you just hit a nerve" might need to be updated to "you just hit a Merkel cell," jokes Jianguo Gu, PhD, a pain researcher at the University of Cincinnati. [More]
Multifunctional microcapsules can be produced from tannic acid and metals

Multifunctional microcapsules can be produced from tannic acid and metals

Microcapsules with a broad spectrum of applications in biomedicine, catalysis, and technology can be produced by using plant-derived, phenolic tannic acid and a variety of metals. The capsules are formed by a simple self-assembly process, and their properties can be controlled through the choice of metal, as demonstrated by a team of Australian and German researchers in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [More]
Alarming increases in diabetes and pre-diabetes cases in the U.S.

Alarming increases in diabetes and pre-diabetes cases in the U.S.

Cases of diabetes and pre-diabetes in the United States have nearly doubled since 1988, suggests new research from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, with obesity apparently to blame for the surge. The researchers also found that the burden of the disease has not hit all groups equally, with alarming increases in diabetes in blacks, Hispanics and the elderly. [More]