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Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food people eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body.

After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach.

When people eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into the cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body in the urine. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose.
Genetics involved with menarche may hold keys to preventing diabetes or osteoporosis in later life

Genetics involved with menarche may hold keys to preventing diabetes or osteoporosis in later life

A novel study shows that the age girls reach puberty is influenced by 'imprinted genes'-a subset of genes whose activity differs depending on which parent contributes the gene. [More]
Study: Slow walking, memory complaints may predict future dementia

Study: Slow walking, memory complaints may predict future dementia

A study involving nearly 27,000 older adults on five continents found that nearly 1 in 10 met criteria for pre-dementia based on a simple test that measures how fast people walk and whether they have cognitive complaints. [More]
Epigenetic switch can cause cancer, shows study

Epigenetic switch can cause cancer, shows study

Cancer has long been thought to be primarily a genetic disease, but in recent decades scientists have come to believe that epigenetic changes - which don't change the DNA sequence but how it is 'read' - also play a role in cancer. [More]
Albuminuria change is a strong cardiovascular risk indicator in diabetes

Albuminuria change is a strong cardiovascular risk indicator in diabetes

Changes in albuminuria predict cardiovascular mortality and morbidity over and above glucose levels and blood pressure, say researchers. [More]
Autophagy prevents accumulation of toxic proteins associated with type 2 diabetes

Autophagy prevents accumulation of toxic proteins associated with type 2 diabetes

People with Type 2 diabetes have an excess of a protein called islet amyloid polypeptide, or IAPP, and the accumulation of this protein is linked to the loss of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. [More]
Study identifies molecular mechanisms could lead to new therapies to treat obesity, diabetes

Study identifies molecular mechanisms could lead to new therapies to treat obesity, diabetes

A protein that controls when genes are switched on or off plays a key role in specific areas of the brain to regulate metabolism, UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers have found. [More]
UTHealth scientists identify inhibitory switch to prevent peripheral vascular disease

UTHealth scientists identify inhibitory switch to prevent peripheral vascular disease

Millions of people in the United States have a circulatory problem of the legs called peripheral vascular disease. It can be painful and may even require surgery in serious cases. This disease can lead to severe skeletal muscle wasting and, in turn, limb amputation. [More]
Blacks with depression and diabetes receive inadequate mental health treatment

Blacks with depression and diabetes receive inadequate mental health treatment

A new study in General Hospital Psychiatry confirms that Blacks with depression plus another chronic medical condition, such as Type 2 diabetes or high blood pressure, do not receive adequate mental health treatment. [More]
Researchers recommend low carbohydrate diet for Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes

Researchers recommend low carbohydrate diet for Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes

A new study involving researchers from the University of Alabama at Birmingham and other institutions says patients with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes should eat a diet low in carbohydrates. [More]
New noninvasive method could lead to better diagnosis, treatment of gut diseases

New noninvasive method could lead to better diagnosis, treatment of gut diseases

A multi-institutional team of researchers has developed a new nanoscale agent for imaging the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This safe, noninvasive method for assessing the function and properties of the GI tract in real time could lead to better diagnosis and treatment of gut diseases. [More]
Study provides insights into interplay among bacteria, viruses and immune system during HIV infection

Study provides insights into interplay among bacteria, viruses and immune system during HIV infection

A new study led by the Translational Genomics Research Institute provides insights into the interplay among bacteria, viruses and the immune system during HIV infection. [More]
Scientists one step closer to creating viable cell replacement therapy for multiple sclerosis patients

Scientists one step closer to creating viable cell replacement therapy for multiple sclerosis patients

Scientists at The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute are one step closer to creating a viable cell replacement therapy for multiple sclerosis from a patient's own cells. [More]
More than half the world’s population is host to newly described gut virus

More than half the world’s population is host to newly described gut virus

Odds are, there-s a virus living inside your gut that has gone undetected by scientists for decades. A new study led by researchers at San Diego State University has found that more than half the world-s population is host to a newly described virus, named crAssphage, which infects one of the most common types of gut bacteria, Bacteroidetes. [More]
Oregano and rosemary help lower glucose in blood

Oregano and rosemary help lower glucose in blood

The popular culinary herbs oregano and rosemary are packed with healthful compounds, and now lab tests show they could work in much the same way as prescription anti-diabetic medication, scientists report. [More]
New research aims to estimate benefits of different ways to combat TB in people with diabetes

New research aims to estimate benefits of different ways to combat TB in people with diabetes

New research aims to estimate the benefits of different ways to carry out screening both patients with tuberculosis (TB) for diabetes and the other way around in parts of the world where both diseases are common. [More]
Dynamic nuclear polarization: an interview with Professor Robert Griffin, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Dynamic nuclear polarization: an interview with Professor Robert Griffin, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

DNP, or dynamic nuclear polarization, is an NMR technique which transfers polarization from the electron spins onto the nuclear spins, using constant microwave irradiation to enable the transfer. [More]
People with higher levels of brown fat have better blood sugar control

People with higher levels of brown fat have better blood sugar control

Researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston have shown for the first time that people with higher levels of brown fat, or brown adipose tissue, in their bodies have better blood sugar control, higher insulin sensitivity and a better metabolism for burning fat stores. [More]
Age of sexual maturity is influenced by 'imprinted' genes in girls

Age of sexual maturity is influenced by 'imprinted' genes in girls

The age at which girls reach sexual maturity is influenced by 'imprinted' genes, a small sub-set of genes whose activity differs depending on which parent passes on that gene, according to new research published today in the journal Nature. [More]
Tulane University psychiatrist to study how parental bond with children leaves lasting genetic protection

Tulane University psychiatrist to study how parental bond with children leaves lasting genetic protection

Tulane University psychiatrist Dr. Stacy Drury has been given $2.4 million by the National Institutes of Health to test a provocative new theory - how well children bond with a parent in the first year of life leaves lasting genetic protection, potentially shielding them from disease risks well into adulthood. [More]
People with schizophrenia more likely to have low levels of vitamin D

People with schizophrenia more likely to have low levels of vitamin D

Vitamin D-deficient individuals are twice as likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia as people who have sufficient levels of the vitamin, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. [More]