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Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food people eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body.

After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach.

When people eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into the cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body in the urine. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose.
Discrimination linked to lower vaccination rates among racial/ethnic minorities

Discrimination linked to lower vaccination rates among racial/ethnic minorities

Yearly flu shots are strongly recommended for adults with certain chronic illnesses, but patients of racial/ethnic minority groups are less likely to receive them. [More]
Neighbourhood 'walkability' may influence diabetes risk

Neighbourhood 'walkability' may influence diabetes risk

A Canadian study shows that the walkability of a person's neighbourhood influences their risk of developing diabetes. [More]
Microvascular disease burden tied to CVD outcomes in diabetic patients

Microvascular disease burden tied to CVD outcomes in diabetic patients

The risk of cardiovascular disease events in patients with Type 2 diabetes rises in line with their cumulative burden of microvascular disease, research shows. [More]
Study explores incidence of heart failure following myocardial infarction

Study explores incidence of heart failure following myocardial infarction

One in four patients develop heart failure within four years of a first heart attack, according to a study in nearly 25 000 patients presented today at Heart Failure 2016 and the 3rd World Congress on Acute Heart Failure by Dr Johannes Gho, a cardiology resident at the University Medical Center Utrecht, in Utrecht, the Netherlands. [More]
Chloride switch controls critical step in basement membrane formation

Chloride switch controls critical step in basement membrane formation

Chloride plays a key role in the formation of the basement membrane, a suprastructure on the outside of cells that undergirds and guides the function of most of the tissues of the body. [More]
Purdue researchers find potential way to overcome limitations posed by CAR T-cell therapy

Purdue researchers find potential way to overcome limitations posed by CAR T-cell therapy

Purdue University researchers may have figured out a way to call off a cancer cell assassin that sometimes goes rogue and assign it a larger tumor-specific "hit list." [More]
Telephone-based intervention helps reduce menopause-related insomnia, hot flashes

Telephone-based intervention helps reduce menopause-related insomnia, hot flashes

Chatting on the phone with a "sleep coach" and keeping a nightly sleep diary significantly improve sleep quality and reduce insomnia in women through all stages of menopause, according to a new study published today in JAMA Internal Medicine. [More]
Researchers find genetic mutations linked to increased risk factor for PTSD

Researchers find genetic mutations linked to increased risk factor for PTSD

In the largest study of DNA samples from service members with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), researchers have identified genetic mutations that may be associated with an increased risk factor for PTSD. [More]
Personalized DXM-loaded leukosomes may help treat inflammation

Personalized DXM-loaded leukosomes may help treat inflammation

Nanosized Trojan horses created from a patient's own immune cells have successfully treated inflammation by overcoming the body's complex defense mechanisms, perhaps leading to broader applications for treating diseases characterized by inflammation, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. [More]
Epigenetic modification of Igfbp2 gene may increase risk of obesity and fatty liver

Epigenetic modification of Igfbp2 gene may increase risk of obesity and fatty liver

Scientists of the German Center for Diabetes Research led by the German Institute of Human Nutrition have shown in a mouse model that the epigenetic modification of the Igfbp2 gene observed in the young animal precedes a fatty liver in the adult animal later in life. [More]
Antimicrobial agent triclosan can rapidly disrupt gut bacterial communities

Antimicrobial agent triclosan can rapidly disrupt gut bacterial communities

A new study suggests that triclosan, an antimicrobial and antifungal agent found in many consumer products ranging from hand soaps to toys and even toothpaste, can rapidly disrupt bacterial communities found in the gut. [More]
Aliskiren fails to show benefit for heart failure patients with diabetes

Aliskiren fails to show benefit for heart failure patients with diabetes

A subgroup analysis in heart failure patients with diabetes from the ATMOSPHERE trial has failed to show benefit and signals the end of the road for aliskiren in heart failure. [More]
Higher aerobic fitness in childhood may reduce metabolic syndrome risks in early adulthood

Higher aerobic fitness in childhood may reduce metabolic syndrome risks in early adulthood

A new study from a group of international researchers has identified a potentially effective tool to reduce the long-term health risks of childhood obesity—aerobic exercise. [More]
HbA1C test can effectively detect hidden diabetes among hyperglycemia patients

HbA1C test can effectively detect hidden diabetes among hyperglycemia patients

A retrospective review of medical records found the HbA1C test, commonly used to diagnose and manage diabetes, can effectively detect hidden disease among hospital patients with hyperglycemia, commonly known as high blood sugar. [More]
NIH-funded study finds visual impairment, blindness may double by 2050

NIH-funded study finds visual impairment, blindness may double by 2050

With the youngest of the baby boomers hitting 65 by 2029, the number of people with visual impairment or blindness in the United States is expected to double to more than 8 million by 2050, according to projections based on the most recent census data and from studies funded by the National Eye Institute, part of the National Institutes of Health. [More]
Study: One-third of patients hospitalised with heart failure do not return to work

Study: One-third of patients hospitalised with heart failure do not return to work

One-third of patients hospitalised with heart failure for the first time have not returned to work one year later, reveals a study in nearly 12 000 patients presented today at Heart Failure 2016 and the 3rd World Congress on Acute Heart Failure by Dr Rasmus Roerth, a physician at Copenhagen University Hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark. [More]
Aggressive blood pressure intervention can benefit frail adults aged 75 and older

Aggressive blood pressure intervention can benefit frail adults aged 75 and older

NIH-supported researchers are reporting additional details about a widely-publicized study that linked a systolic blood pressure target under 120 mm Hg (millimeters of mercury) with reduced cardiovascular disease and a lower risk of death. [More]
Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy may reduce risk of blood loss, prolonged hospital stays in obese men

Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy may reduce risk of blood loss, prolonged hospital stays in obese men

In obese prostate cancer patients, robotic-assisted surgery to remove the prostate reduces the risk of blood loss and prolonged hospital stays, a Loyola Medicine study has found. [More]
New collaborative research center to investigate promising aspects of mucosal immunology

New collaborative research center to investigate promising aspects of mucosal immunology

Immunology - and the idea that many diseases can best be addressed by boosting the body's own immune response - is one of the hottest areas in medical research and clinical treatment. [More]
Intensive blood pressure lowering therapies can cut heart disease risk in older adults

Intensive blood pressure lowering therapies can cut heart disease risk in older adults

Intensive therapies to reduce high blood pressure can cut the risk of heart disease in older adults without increasing the risk for falls, according to doctors at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center. [More]
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