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Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food people eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body.

After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach.

When people eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into the cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body in the urine. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose.
Sanford-Burnham researchers use human pluripotent stem cells to grow new hair

Sanford-Burnham researchers use human pluripotent stem cells to grow new hair

In a new study from Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, researchers have used human pluripotent stem cells to generate new hair. The study represents the first step toward the development of a cell-based treatment for people with hair loss. In the United States alone, more than 40 million men and 21 million women are affected by hair loss. [More]
Dexcom G4 PLATINUM Continuous Glucose Monitoring System with Share receives FDA approval

Dexcom G4 PLATINUM Continuous Glucose Monitoring System with Share receives FDA approval

DexCom, Inc., a leader in continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) for patients with diabetes, announced today that it has received U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for its Dexcom G4 PLATINUM Continuous Glucose Monitoring System with Share. [More]
New study may lead to novel drug target for treating lung cancer

New study may lead to novel drug target for treating lung cancer

A new study by University of Kentucky Markey Cancer Center researchers suggests that targeting a key enzyme and its associated metabolic programming may lead to novel drug development to treat lung cancer. [More]
High cholesterol in mid-life can impact heart health later

High cholesterol in mid-life can impact heart health later

Most young adults might assume they have years before needing to worry about their cholesterol. [More]
Majority of Canada's homeless adults with mental illness show evidence of cognitive deficits

Majority of Canada's homeless adults with mental illness show evidence of cognitive deficits

Nearly three-quarters of homeless adults with mental illness in Canada show evidence of cognitive deficits, such as difficulties with problem solving, learning and memory, new research has found. [More]
Pitt researchers receive NIH grant to improve health of sedentary, overweight people

Pitt researchers receive NIH grant to improve health of sedentary, overweight people

University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health researchers are flipping conventional thought on its head regarding how to improve the health of sedentary people at risk for diabetes and heart disease in a new study designed to combat a condition popularly called "sitting disease." [More]
Research findings may accelerate work to safely control diabetes

Research findings may accelerate work to safely control diabetes

For those with diabetes, managing blood sugar is a balancing act -- if blood sugar is too high it raises the risk for nerve damage, blindness, kidney failure, and heart trouble, and if too low it can lead to a seizure or unconsciousness. [More]
Heptares Therapeutics announces recipients of Malcolm Campbell Memorial Prize for 2015

Heptares Therapeutics announces recipients of Malcolm Campbell Memorial Prize for 2015

Heptares Therapeutics, the clinical-stage GPCR structure-guided drug discovery and development company, is delighted to announce that the Malcolm Campbell Memorial Prize for 2015 has been awarded to Miles Congreve (Vice President of Chemistry), Fiona Marshall (Chief Scientific Officer and co-founder) and Malcolm Weir (Chief Executive Officer and co-founder) for the seminal contributions to GPCR drug discovery made by Heptares Therapeutics since the company was founded in 2007. [More]
UVA's new program uses EpicCare electronic medical record to improve patients' access to specialists

UVA's new program uses EpicCare electronic medical record to improve patients' access to specialists

The University of Virginia Health System is piloting a new program that uses its EpicCare electronic medical record to speed patients' access to specialists. [More]
Loyola University Medical Center earns Baby-Friendly designation

Loyola University Medical Center earns Baby-Friendly designation

Loyola University Medical Center has earned the coveted Baby-Friendly designation. This verifies that the hospital has implemented the ten steps to help new mothers successfully breastfeed. [More]
TOSH Program aims to improve oral-systemic health

TOSH Program aims to improve oral-systemic health

Improving oral health is a leading population health goal; however, curricula preparing health professionals have a dearth of oral health content and clinical experiences. Funded by a grant from the Health Resources and Service Administration, New York University College of Nursing's Teaching Oral-Systemic Health Program is working to build interprofessional oral health workforce capacity which addresses a significant public health issue, increases oral health care access, and improves oral-systemic health across the lifespan. [More]
New study links inflammatory bowel diseases to increase in diversity of viruses

New study links inflammatory bowel diseases to increase in diversity of viruses

Inflammatory bowel diseases are associated with a decrease in the diversity of bacteria in the gut, but a new study led by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has linked the same illnesses to an increase in the diversity of viruses. [More]
Commonwealth Fund grant to support BIDMC's work on OurNotes

Commonwealth Fund grant to support BIDMC's work on OurNotes

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center has received a $450,000 grant from The Commonwealth Fund to develop OurNotes, an initiative to promote active patient engagement in health and illness that invites patients to contribute to their own electronic medical records. [More]
Heptares Therapeutics, AstraZeneca report significant progress in drug discovery collaboration

Heptares Therapeutics, AstraZeneca report significant progress in drug discovery collaboration

Heptares Therapeutics, the clinical-stage GPCR structure-guided drug discovery and development company, announces significant progress in its drug discovery collaboration with AstraZeneca. [More]
Mount Sinai study measures ability of artificial pancreas in preventing hypoglycemia in T1D patients

Mount Sinai study measures ability of artificial pancreas in preventing hypoglycemia in T1D patients

A newly launched clinical research study at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai is examining whether an artificial pancreas (AP) can prevent too low blood sugar levels or hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) as they sleep. People fast as they sleep and nighttime hypoglycemia can cause seizures, and coma or death in rare cases, among the more than three million Americans with type 1 diabetes. [More]
Two new drug compounds appear to be effective in treating endometriosis

Two new drug compounds appear to be effective in treating endometriosis

Two new drug compounds - one of which has already proven useful in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis - appear to be effective in treating endometriosis, a disorder that, like MS, is driven by estrogen and inflammation, scientists report in Science Translational Medicine. [More]
Umbilical cord-derived stem cells from women with gestational diabetes show premature aging

Umbilical cord-derived stem cells from women with gestational diabetes show premature aging

Multipotent cells isolated from the human umbilical cord, called mesenchymal stromal cells (hUC-MSCs) have shown promise for use in cell therapy to treat a variety of human diseases. However, intriguing new evidence shows that hUC-MSCs isolated from women with gestational diabetes demonstrate premature aging, poorer cell growth, and altered metabolic function, as reported in an article in Stem Cells and Development, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. [More]
U.S. News & World Report recognizes Jenny Craig with Best Diets rankings

U.S. News & World Report recognizes Jenny Craig with Best Diets rankings

U.S. News & World Report, a nationally recognized publisher of consumer advice and rankings, recognized Jenny Craig as the 2nd Best Commercial Diet Plan, 2nd Easiest Diet to Follow, and 3rd Best Weight-Loss Diet in its annual Best Diets rankings. [More]
AHS provides updated assessment of treatments for acute migraine

AHS provides updated assessment of treatments for acute migraine

The January issue of the American Headache Society journal Headache provides an updated assessment of the best treatments to use when a migraine attack occurs. The assessment will form the basis of new AHS treatment guidelines. [More]
Study: Mutated ATRX gene may serve as much-needed biomarker for rare neuroendocrine tumors

Study: Mutated ATRX gene may serve as much-needed biomarker for rare neuroendocrine tumors

A somatic mutation in the ATRX gene has recently been shown as a potential molecular marker for aggressive brain tumors, such as gliomas, neuroblastomas and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Now, for the first time, researchers at Penn's Abramson Cancer Center have found that the same mutated gene may serve as a much-needed biomarker for the pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PCC/PGL) that become malignant. [More]