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Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food people eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body.

After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach.

When people eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into the cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body in the urine. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose.
Monash University research explores long-term costs for two main causes of stroke

Monash University research explores long-term costs for two main causes of stroke

New data shows that healthcare and personal costs to support survivors of stroke remains high 10 years on. [More]
Rates of type 1 diabetes increase significantly among non-Hispanic white youth

Rates of type 1 diabetes increase significantly among non-Hispanic white youth

The rate of non-Hispanic white youth diagnosed with type 1 diabetes increased significantly from 2002 to 2009 in all but the youngest age group of children, according to a new study published today in the journal Diabetes. [More]
UC San Diego Sanford Stem Cell Clinical Center named new 'alpha clinic'

UC San Diego Sanford Stem Cell Clinical Center named new 'alpha clinic'

In a push to further speed clinical development of emerging stem cell therapies, Sanford Stem Cell Clinical Center at UC San Diego Health System was named today one of three new "alpha clinics" by the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, the state's stem cell agency. [More]
Growth factor boosts natural defence against auto-immune diseases

Growth factor boosts natural defence against auto-immune diseases

Our immune system defends us from harmful bacteria and viruses, but, if left unchecked, the cells that destroy those invaders can turn on the body itself, causing auto-immune diseases like type-1 diabetes or multiple sclerosis. A molecule called insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) boosts the body's natural defence against this 'friendly fire', scientists at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Monterotondo, Italy, have found. [More]
Research shows FGF21 hormone acts directly on brain to regulate obesity

Research shows FGF21 hormone acts directly on brain to regulate obesity

A hormone seen as a popular target to develop weight-loss drugs works by directly targeting the brain and triggering previously unknown activity in the nervous system, UT Southwestern Medical Center obesity researchers have found. [More]
Aseptika launches Contactless Thermometer and Pulse Oximeter

Aseptika launches Contactless Thermometer and Pulse Oximeter

With the winter flu and cold season almost upon us we can stock up and take some steps to prepare at home for this eventuality. Having a flu jab, eating well, getting lots of exercise and sleep, and maintain good personal hygiene all help in preventing flu and colds. [More]
Insulin resistance linked to treatment-refractory bipolar disorder

Insulin resistance linked to treatment-refractory bipolar disorder

Patients with bipolar disorder who are insulin resistant are likely to also be refractory to mood-stabilising treatment, report researchers. [More]
SAHF report highlights method to address misunderstanding of diabetes in the South Asian community

SAHF report highlights method to address misunderstanding of diabetes in the South Asian community

A new report published today, by the South Asian Health Foundation (SAHF) highlights that misunderstanding of diabetes in the South Asian community can be addressed by culturally appropriate education programmes. [More]
Einstein, Montefiore receive grant to establish home health services for people with IDD

Einstein, Montefiore receive grant to establish home health services for people with IDD

Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University and Montefiore Medical Center in collaboration with Developmental Disabilities Health Alliance of New York and Community Resource Center for the Developmentally Disabled, Inc., have received a $2.4 million grant to integrate medical and mental healthcare for children and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). [More]
Just in time for open enrollment, a new physician rating site

Just in time for open enrollment, a new physician rating site

USA Today reports that the website uses about 500 million federal and private claims and patient reviews to rank doctors. Meanwhile, the failure of the $30 billion federal program to create interoperable electronic health record systems is examined by Politico. [More]
Marital hostility, history of depression can increase obesity risk in adults

Marital hostility, history of depression can increase obesity risk in adults

The double-whammy of marital hostility and a history of depression can increase the risk for obesity in adults by altering how the body processes high-fat foods, according to new research. [More]
Research: MHCI protein moonlights in nervous system to regulate synapses

Research: MHCI protein moonlights in nervous system to regulate synapses

When it comes to the brain, "more is better" seems like an obvious assumption. But in the case of synapses, which are the connections between brain cells, too many or too few can both disrupt brain function. [More]
Scientists identify potent inhibitors to combat common obesity gene

Scientists identify potent inhibitors to combat common obesity gene

Individuals who are genetically predisposed to obesity may soon have a therapeutic solution to combat their condition. A research team led by scientists from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has identified several potent inhibitors that selectively target FTO, the common fat mass and obesity-associated gene. [More]
BIDMC investigators develop three-minute assessment that identifies delirium in older hospital patients

BIDMC investigators develop three-minute assessment that identifies delirium in older hospital patients

Delirium is a state of confusion that develops suddenly, often following an acute medical illness, a surgical procedure or a hospitalization. Although delirium is estimated to complicate hospital stays for over 2.5 million elderly individuals in the U.S. each year, this common condition often goes undetected. The end result can be serious complications with sometimes devastating consequences for vulnerable hospitalized elders. [More]
Internal calorie counter evaluates food based on its caloric density, shows neuroimaging study

Internal calorie counter evaluates food based on its caloric density, shows neuroimaging study

As you glance over a menu or peruse the shelves in a supermarket, you may be thinking about how each food will taste and whether it's nutritious, or you may be trying to decide what you're in the mood for. [More]
Dexcom SHARE CGM remote mobile communications device receives FDA approval

Dexcom SHARE CGM remote mobile communications device receives FDA approval

Dexcom, Inc., a leader in continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) for patients with diabetes, announced today that it has received U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for its CGM remote mobile communications device: Dexcom SHARE. [More]
Lactobacillus-containing probiotics can improve lupus symptoms

Lactobacillus-containing probiotics can improve lupus symptoms

Lactobacillus species, commonly seen in yogurt cultures, correlate, in the guts of mouse models, with mitigation of lupus symptoms, while Lachnospiraceae, a type of Clostridia, correlate with worsening, according to research published ahead of print in Applied and Environmental Microbiology. [More]
New study reveals how cancer becomes drug resistant over time

New study reveals how cancer becomes drug resistant over time

Like a colony of bacteria or species of animals, cancer cells within a tumor must evolve to survive. A dose of chemotherapy may kill hundreds of thousands of cancer cells, for example, but a single cell with a unique mutation can survive and quickly generate a new batch of drug-resistant cells, making cancer hard to combat. [More]
Regeneron, Sanofi announce initiation of dupilumab Phase 3 study in adults with atopic dermatitis

Regeneron, Sanofi announce initiation of dupilumab Phase 3 study in adults with atopic dermatitis

Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Sanofi today announced that the first patients have been dosed in a Phase 3 clinical study of dupilumab, an investigational therapy that blocks IL-4 and IL-13 signaling, in adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD) that is not adequately controlled with topical AD medications. [More]
Research: Ageing and depression are associated with epigenetic changes

Research: Ageing and depression are associated with epigenetic changes

Psychological stress and stress-related psychiatric disorders are associated with increased risk for aging-related diseases, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this relation are unknown. [More]