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Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food people eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body.

After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach.

When people eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into the cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body in the urine. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose.
Waist circumference, body mass index, and postmenopausal breast cancer incidence

Waist circumference, body mass index, and postmenopausal breast cancer incidence

A study of predominantly white women finds a larger waist circumference is associated with higher risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, but not beyond its contribution to BMI. The study, by American Cancer Society researchers, fails to confirm previous findings that body shape itself is an independent risk factor for breast cancer. The current study appears in the April 2014 issue of Cancer Causes, and Control. [More]

NICE recommends FIRMAGON for treating advanced hormone-dependent prostate cancer in adults with spinal metastases

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) today issued its Final Appraisal Determination (FAD) recommending FIRMAGON (degarelix) as an option for treating advanced hormone-dependent prostate cancer, only in adults with spinal metastases who present with signs or symptoms of spinal cord compression. [More]
UC pain researcher solves a long-standing scientific mystery

UC pain researcher solves a long-standing scientific mystery

By solving a long standing scientific mystery, the common saying "you just hit a nerve" might need to be updated to "you just hit a Merkel cell," jokes Jianguo Gu, PhD, a pain researcher at the University of Cincinnati. [More]
Multifunctional microcapsules can be produced from tannic acid and metals

Multifunctional microcapsules can be produced from tannic acid and metals

Microcapsules with a broad spectrum of applications in biomedicine, catalysis, and technology can be produced by using plant-derived, phenolic tannic acid and a variety of metals. The capsules are formed by a simple self-assembly process, and their properties can be controlled through the choice of metal, as demonstrated by a team of Australian and German researchers in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [More]

Alarming increases in diabetes and pre-diabetes cases in the U.S.

Cases of diabetes and pre-diabetes in the United States have nearly doubled since 1988, suggests new research from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, with obesity apparently to blame for the surge. The researchers also found that the burden of the disease has not hit all groups equally, with alarming increases in diabetes in blacks, Hispanics and the elderly. [More]

FDA approves GSK's Tanzeum as once-weekly treatment for type 2 diabetes

GlaxoSmithKline plc today announced that the US Food and Drug Administration has approved Tanzeum (albiglutide) for injection, for subcutaneous use, as a once-weekly treatment for type 2 diabetes. Tanzeum has been approved as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. [More]
Measurement of calcium in coronary arteries can predict heart disease risk

Measurement of calcium in coronary arteries can predict heart disease risk

With growing evidence that a measurement of the buildup of calcium in coronary arteries can predict heart disease risk, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (LA BioMed) researchers found that the process of "calcium scoring" was also accurate in predicting the chances of dying of heart disease among adults with little or no known risk of heart disease. [More]
Johnson & Johnson's sales increase 3.5% to $18.1 billion in first quarter 2014

Johnson & Johnson's sales increase 3.5% to $18.1 billion in first quarter 2014

Johnson & Johnson today announced sales of $18.1 billion for the first quarter of 2014, an increase of 3.5% as compared to the first quarter of 2013. Operational results increased 5.3% and the negative impact of currency was 1.8%. Domestic sales increased 2.2%. International sales increased 4.5%, reflecting operational growth of 7.9% and a negative currency impact of 3.4%. [More]
Sanofi Korea launches gut health product, Probi Digestis

Sanofi Korea launches gut health product, Probi Digestis

Probi has signed a distribution and supply agreement with Sanofi. Following this the Consumer Healthcare division of Sanofi Korea is making a major launch of Probi´s gut health product, Probi Digestis starting in April 2014. Probi has already delivered products and received substantial orders for the coming quarters. [More]
Psychological support for diabetes patients: an interview with Katharine Barnard, University of Southampton

Psychological support for diabetes patients: an interview with Katharine Barnard, University of Southampton

It’s been over a decade since the first Diabetes Attitudes Wishes and Needs (DAWN) study showed that psychosocial aspects of diabetes pose specific challenges and barriers to optimal glycaemic control for people living with diabetes. [More]

Researchers figure out role of birth weight and breastfeeding in long run health outcomes

Lower weight babies and babies who aren't breastfed or not breastfed for long are at greater risk of developing chronic inflammation and related health problems later in life, according to a new study. [More]
New drug combination proves effective in treating patients with HCV genotype 1

New drug combination proves effective in treating patients with HCV genotype 1

Treatment options for the 170 million people worldwide with chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) are evolving rapidly, although the available regimens often come with significant side effects. Two multi-center clinical trials led by Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center show promise for a new option that could help lead to both an increase in patients cured with a much more simple and tolerable all oral therapy. [More]

Researchers find link between patient satisfaction and SDM during radiation treatment

Playing an active role in their radiation treatment decisions leaves cancer patients feeling more satisfied with their care, and may even relieve psychological distress around the experience, researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania report in the journal Cancer. [More]
NEPHRON+ project improves lives of kidney failure patients by developing wearable artificial kidney device

NEPHRON+ project improves lives of kidney failure patients by developing wearable artificial kidney device

End stage kidney disease is a global public health problem with an estimated 2.4 million patients on dialysis. The number of new cases is rising (7-8% annually) due to population ageing and increased diabetes prevalence. [More]
Proteomics completes important milestone towards development of CDx test with validation of protein biomarkers

Proteomics completes important milestone towards development of CDx test with validation of protein biomarkers

Proteomics now seeks a commercialisation partner to enter the RUO, LDT or IVD markets. Drug discovery company Proteomics International has completed an important milestone towards the development of a companion diagnostic (CDx) test with the validation of several of its protein biomarkers. [More]
Researchers reveal why Peel has one of highest rates of diabetes in Ontario

Researchers reveal why Peel has one of highest rates of diabetes in Ontario

According to researchers at St. Michael's Hospital, there are two significant reasons why Peel has one of the highest rates of diabetes in Ontario: neighbourhood design that discourages walking and a population with many residents whose ethnic backgrounds predispose them to diabetes. [More]
Targeting enzyme responsible for glucose metabolism halts tumor growth, say researchers

Targeting enzyme responsible for glucose metabolism halts tumor growth, say researchers

Cancer cells generate energy differently than normal cells, a characteristic that helps them to survive and metastasize. A major goal in the field of cancer metabolism is to find ways to overcome this survival advantage. [More]
RWJUH offers new alternative to open up blocked arteries

RWJUH offers new alternative to open up blocked arteries

Treatment options for high-risk heart patients with severely calcified coronary artery disease (CAD) have been limited for more than 20 years. Now, Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital offers a new alternative to open up blocked arteries. [More]
Taking a close-to-home look at the Medicare billing data

Taking a close-to-home look at the Medicare billing data

Other news outlets offer localized takes on the Medicare data, including the Miami Herald's coverage of a physician who emerged as the federal program's top-paid doctor, the Philadelphia Inquirer's look at an ambulance business' billing patterns and the Seattle Times' examination of ophthalmologists. [More]

Loyola University Medical Center designated as Comprehensive Hypertension Center

Loyola University Medical Center has been approved as a Comprehensive Hypertension Center by the American Society of Hypertension. This designation recognizes centers that have demonstrated the highest level of expertise in treating patients with complex hypertension and co-existing medical conditions such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease. [More]