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Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food people eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body.

After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach.

When people eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into the cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body in the urine. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose.
Children infected with enterovirus more likely to have type 1 diabetes

Children infected with enterovirus more likely to have type 1 diabetes

A new study published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes) shows that children who have been infected with enterovirus are 48% more likely to have developed type 1 diabetes. The study is by Dr Tsai Chung-Li, China Medical University, Taiwan, and colleagues. [More]
Low vitamin D levels linked to poor brain function after sudden cardiac arrest

Low vitamin D levels linked to poor brain function after sudden cardiac arrest

Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of poor brain function after sudden cardiac arrest by seven-fold, according to research presented at Acute Cardiovascular Care 2014 by Dr Jin Wi from Korea. Vitamin D deficiency also led to a higher chance of dying after sudden cardiac arrest. [More]
Depression, anxiety after MI more common in women than men

Depression, anxiety after MI more common in women than men

Women are more likely to develop anxiety and depression after a heart attack (myocardial infarction; MI) than men, according to research presented at Acute Cardiovascular Care 2014 by Professor Pranas Serpytis from Lithuania. [More]
Anaesthesia editorial challenges placenta's role in pre-eclampsia

Anaesthesia editorial challenges placenta's role in pre-eclampsia

Pre-eclampsia, the potentially deadly condition that affects pregnant women, may be caused by problems meeting the oxygen demands of the growing fetus, according to an editorial in the November issue of Anaesthesia, the journal of the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland. [More]
Research roundup: Malpractice reforms and doctors' practice; Medicaid expansion's effect

Research roundup: Malpractice reforms and doctors' practice; Medicaid expansion's effect

Defensive medicine is considered by many to be a major source of wasteful medical spending in the United States. [More]
TSRI scientists identify long-sought activating molecules for subset of immune system cells

TSRI scientists identify long-sought activating molecules for subset of immune system cells

Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have identified the long-sought activating molecules for a rare but crucial subset of immune system cells that help rally other white blood cells to fight infection. [More]
Scientists identify two microRNA molecules that control chronic inflammation

Scientists identify two microRNA molecules that control chronic inflammation

University of Utah scientists have identified two microRNA molecules that control chronic inflammation, a discovery that one day may help researchers prevent certain fatal or debilitating conditions before they start. [More]
Mexican students create zero calorie sweetener for people with diabetes, hypertension, obesity

Mexican students create zero calorie sweetener for people with diabetes, hypertension, obesity

Since Elsa Martinez was diagnosed with type II diabetes she made sure to be informed about those food products that wouldn't aggravate her health. [More]
Cell transplantation treatment may benefit people with spinal cord injury

Cell transplantation treatment may benefit people with spinal cord injury

Two studies recently published in Cell Transplantation reveal that cell transplantation may be an effective treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI), a major cause of disability and paralysis with no current restorative therapies. [More]
Researchers identify two microRNA molecules that control chronic inflammation

Researchers identify two microRNA molecules that control chronic inflammation

University of Utah scientists have identified two microRNA molecules that control chronic inflammation, a discovery that one day may help researchers prevent certain fatal or debilitating conditions before they start. [More]
Kalorama Information: Experimental vaccine distribution in the UK points to growing flu vaccine market

Kalorama Information: Experimental vaccine distribution in the UK points to growing flu vaccine market

Kalorama Information believes an experimental vaccine distribution in the United Kingdom and other similar developments point to a growing flu vaccine market, as well as a growing market for the production of these vaccines. [More]
Researchers discover new signaling pathway to fight excess body weight

Researchers discover new signaling pathway to fight excess body weight

The number of overweight persons is greatly increasing worldwide - and as a result is the risk of suffering a heart attack, stroke, diabetes or Alzheimer's disease. [More]
UCSF study: Smoking takes $18.1 billion toll in California

UCSF study: Smoking takes $18.1 billion toll in California

Smoking took an $18.1 billion toll in California – $487 for each resident – and was responsible for more than one in seven deaths in the state, more than from AIDS, influenza, diabetes or many other causes, according to the first comprehensive analysis in more than a decade on the financial and health impacts of tobacco. [More]
Major scientific breakthrough in understanding retinal degenerative diseases that cause blindness

Major scientific breakthrough in understanding retinal degenerative diseases that cause blindness

An important scientific breakthrough by a team of IRCM researchers led by Michel Cayouette, PhD, is being published today by The Journal of Neuroscience. The Montréal scientists discovered that a protein found in the retina plays an essential role in the function and survival of light-sensing cells that are required for vision. [More]
Intake of arsenic linked to cardiovascular disease, diabetes

Intake of arsenic linked to cardiovascular disease, diabetes

Associated with various types of cancer such as skin and liver, the intake of arsenic it is also linked to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. According to a long-term research conducted by experts from the Center for Research and Advanced Studies it was determined that this metalloid inhibits enzymes associated with antioxidant protection. [More]
SIRT6 protein inhibits liver and colon cancers, but promotes skin cancer caused by ultraviolet light

SIRT6 protein inhibits liver and colon cancers, but promotes skin cancer caused by ultraviolet light

A new study published in Cancer Research shows SIRT6—a protein known to inhibit the growth of liver and colon cancers—can promote the development of skin cancers by turning on an enzyme that increases inflammation, proliferation and survival of sun-damaged skin cells. [More]
Cardiometabolic health intervention urged for schizophrenia patients

Cardiometabolic health intervention urged for schizophrenia patients

Research shows high cardiometabolic risk, particularly increased dyslipidaemia and smoking, but little related medical treatment in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. [More]
Researchers reveal gene variants that delay fracture healing

Researchers reveal gene variants that delay fracture healing

Slow-healing or non-healing bone fractures in otherwise healthy people may be caused by gene variants that are common in the population, according to Penn State College of Medicine researchers. [More]
Scientists create light-activated drug to help control type 2 diabetes

Scientists create light-activated drug to help control type 2 diabetes

Scientists have created a drug for type 2 diabetes that is switched on by blue light, which they hope will improve treatment of the disease. [More]
Mount Sinai Hospital first in nation to use drug-coated balloon to open blocked arteries in the leg

Mount Sinai Hospital first in nation to use drug-coated balloon to open blocked arteries in the leg

The Mount Sinai Hospital is first in the United States to use the first and only FDA-approved, drug-coated balloon to open blocked arteries in the leg. [More]