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A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters.
Mouse models of Zika virus infection in pregnancy provide basis to develop vaccines, treatments

Mouse models of Zika virus infection in pregnancy provide basis to develop vaccines, treatments

Two mouse models of Zika virus infection in pregnancy have been developed by a team of researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. In them, the virus migrated from the pregnant mouse's bloodstream into the placenta, where it multiplied, then spread into the fetal circulation and infected the brains of the developing pups. [More]
Researchers discover true Diels-Alder enzyme on the Pacific seabed

Researchers discover true Diels-Alder enzyme on the Pacific seabed

Scientists at the Universities of Bristol and Newcastle have uncovered the secret of the 'Mona Lisa of chemical reactions' - in a bacterium that lives at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean. [More]
Jumping genes may play crucial role in generation of cancer

Jumping genes may play crucial role in generation of cancer

For more than 50 years, scientists have known of the existence of "jumping genes," strands of DNA material that can move from one location in the genome to another. [More]
Patient-specific immunotherapeutic vaccines may improve overall survival of melanoma patients

Patient-specific immunotherapeutic vaccines may improve overall survival of melanoma patients

Two patients with melanoma that had spread to the liver survived for at least 8.5 and 12 years after resection of the hepatic tumor and treatment with patient-specific immunotherapeutic vaccines. [More]
Yellow fever outbreak: Researchers emphasize need to prepare for global health emergency

Yellow fever outbreak: Researchers emphasize need to prepare for global health emergency

Evidence is mounting that the current outbreak of yellow fever is becoming the latest global health emergency, say two Georgetown University professors, who call on the World Health Organization to convene an emergency committee under the International Health Regulations. In addition, with frequent emerging epidemics, they call for the creation of a "standing emergency committee" to be prepared for future health emergencies. [More]
Experimental vaccine protects healthy U.S. adults from malaria infection for more than one year

Experimental vaccine protects healthy U.S. adults from malaria infection for more than one year

An experimental malaria vaccine protected a small number of healthy, malaria-naïve adults in the United States from infection for more than one year after immunization, according to results from a Phase 1 trial described in the May 9th issue of Nature Medicine. [More]
Doctor’s access to vaccination data can improve pediatric immunization coverage

Doctor’s access to vaccination data can improve pediatric immunization coverage

Exchange of immunization data between a centralized city immunization registry and provider electronic health records led to significant improvements in pediatric immunization coverage, a reduction in over-immunization for adolescents, and increased completeness of immunization records, according to a study conducted at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University Medical Center, NewYork-Presbyterian, and the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's Citywide Immunization Registry. [More]
Female sex hormone estradiol may protect women against sexually transmitted viral infections

Female sex hormone estradiol may protect women against sexually transmitted viral infections

A team of researchers led by McMaster University's Charu Kaushic has revealed for the first time how estradiol, a female sex hormone present during the menstrual cycle and found in oral contraceptives, may work to protect women against sexually transmitted viral infections. [More]
Duke scientists develop human-derived antibody that preferentially attacks cancer cells

Duke scientists develop human-derived antibody that preferentially attacks cancer cells

A research team from Duke Health has developed an antibody from the body's own immune system that preferentially attacks cancer cells. [More]
Early viral respiratory infections may increase type 1 diabetes risk in children

Early viral respiratory infections may increase type 1 diabetes risk in children

Viral respiratory infections during the first six months of life are associated with an increased risk for type 1 diabetes. This is the conclusion reached by a team of scientists at the Helmholtz Zentrum München during a study published in the current issue of the renowned US magazine 'JAMA'. [More]
Ebola vaccine shows promise in clinical trials

Ebola vaccine shows promise in clinical trials

"The results for tolerability, safety, and the immune response to the vaccine candidate are very promising," explains Prof Marylyn Addo. The antibodies which developed against the virus were still detectable after six months. Addo is convinced, "With this, a single vaccine could provide lasting protection against Ebola." The infectious disease specialist, who works for the German Center for Infection Research at the University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf in Hamburg, led the trial in Hamburg. [More]
Hepatitis B virus screening for Asian American adults can help prevent onset of liver diseases

Hepatitis B virus screening for Asian American adults can help prevent onset of liver diseases

A community-based hepatitis B virus screening effort led by UC Davis researchers found that targeted outreach to Asian American populations can identify groups at high risk for infection and direct them to appropriate follow-up care to help prevent the onset of liver diseases, including cancer. [More]
Flu vaccinations for pregnant women reduce newborn’s influenza risk during first six months of life

Flu vaccinations for pregnant women reduce newborn’s influenza risk during first six months of life

Babies whose moms get flu vaccinations while pregnant have a significantly reduced risk of acquiring influenza during their first six months of life, a new study shows, leading the authors to declare that the need for getting more pregnant women immunized is a public health priority. [More]
Study identifies shortfall in uptake of influenza, pneumococcal vaccination among RA patients

Study identifies shortfall in uptake of influenza, pneumococcal vaccination among RA patients

Research from The University of Manchester has found a shortfall in the uptake of influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations among those diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), potentially increasing their infection risk. [More]
LJI study could provide important target for autoimmune disease interventions

LJI study could provide important target for autoimmune disease interventions

Follicular helper T cells (Tfh cells), a rare type of T cells, are indispensable for the maturation of antibody-producing B cells. They promote the proliferation of B cells that produce highly selective antibodies against invading pathogens while weeding out those that generate potentially harmful ones. [More]
Addition of L19-IL2 can increase radiation therapy-induced immune response against tumours

Addition of L19-IL2 can increase radiation therapy-induced immune response against tumours

Radiation therapy not only kills cancer cells, but also helps to activate the immune system against their future proliferation. However, this immune response is often not strong enough to be able to cure tumours, and even when it is, its effect is limited to the area that has been irradiated. [More]
Experimental therapy has over 90% remission rate for advanced leukemia patients

Experimental therapy has over 90% remission rate for advanced leukemia patients

Twenty-seven of 29 patients with an advanced type of leukemia that had proved resistant to multiple other forms of therapy went into remission after their T cells (disease-fighting immune cells) were genetically engineered to fight their cancers. [More]
ZOTEN nanoparticles can help develop natural immunity against genital herpes

ZOTEN nanoparticles can help develop natural immunity against genital herpes

An effective vaccine against the virus that causes genital herpes has evaded researchers for decades. But now, researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago working with scientists from Germany have shown that zinc-oxide nanoparticles shaped like jacks can prevent the virus from entering cells, and help natural immunity to develop. [More]
More neurological resources needed to manage Zika virus infections

More neurological resources needed to manage Zika virus infections

WFN Zika-Info-Service: World Federation of Neurology establishes Work Group on Zika virus to support international efforts - Lack of neurological resources in countries most concerned by the virus. [More]
Study shows tropics, subtropics exhibit complex patterns of seasonal flu activity

Study shows tropics, subtropics exhibit complex patterns of seasonal flu activity

Whilst countries in the tropics and subtropics exhibit diverse patterns of seasonal flu activity, they can be grouped into eight geographical zones to optimise vaccine formulation and delivery timing, according to a study published April 27, 2016 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Siddhivinayak Hirve from the World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, and colleagues. [More]
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