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Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food people eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body.

After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach.

When people eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into the cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body in the urine. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose.
People with higher levels of brown fat have better blood sugar control

People with higher levels of brown fat have better blood sugar control

Researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston have shown for the first time that people with higher levels of brown fat, or brown adipose tissue, in their bodies have better blood sugar control, higher insulin sensitivity and a better metabolism for burning fat stores. [More]
Age of sexual maturity is influenced by 'imprinted' genes in girls

Age of sexual maturity is influenced by 'imprinted' genes in girls

The age at which girls reach sexual maturity is influenced by 'imprinted' genes, a small sub-set of genes whose activity differs depending on which parent passes on that gene, according to new research published today in the journal Nature. [More]
Tulane University psychiatrist to study how parental bond with children leaves lasting genetic protection

Tulane University psychiatrist to study how parental bond with children leaves lasting genetic protection

Tulane University psychiatrist Dr. Stacy Drury has been given $2.4 million by the National Institutes of Health to test a provocative new theory - how well children bond with a parent in the first year of life leaves lasting genetic protection, potentially shielding them from disease risks well into adulthood. [More]
People with schizophrenia more likely to have low levels of vitamin D

People with schizophrenia more likely to have low levels of vitamin D

Vitamin D-deficient individuals are twice as likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia as people who have sufficient levels of the vitamin, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. [More]
New strategies to help overcome hairstyle-related barriers to physical activity

New strategies to help overcome hairstyle-related barriers to physical activity

According to the Centers for Disease Control, approximately four out of five black women are overweight or obese and 36 percent meet physical activity objectives as determined by the CDC. [More]
Study: Lack of sleep can lead to errors in memory

Study: Lack of sleep can lead to errors in memory

Lack of sleep, already considered a public health epidemic, can also lead to errors in memory, finds a new study by researchers at Michigan State University and the University of California, Irvine. [More]
BP variability may be ‘CV risk integrator’

BP variability may be ‘CV risk integrator’

Increased variability in blood pressure may be an indicator of overall cardiovascular risk rather than being a risk factor per se, suggest researchers. [More]
Genomics testing in action: an interview with Kevin Haar, CEO, Appistry

Genomics testing in action: an interview with Kevin Haar, CEO, Appistry

The more connections are made between genes, disease and drugs, and the more that we continue to understand about those connections, the more critical genetic testing will become in modern medicine. [More]
Study: L-carnitine has neuroprotective effects on injured sciatic nerve of rats

Study: L-carnitine has neuroprotective effects on injured sciatic nerve of rats

Several studies have demonstrated that L-carnitine exhibits neuroprotective effects on injured sciatic nerve of rats with diabetes mellitus. [More]
IL-10 enhances positive benefits of transplanted allogenic SMCs to repair cardiac tissues after MI

IL-10 enhances positive benefits of transplanted allogenic SMCs to repair cardiac tissues after MI

The long-term, positive benefits of transplanted allogenic (other-donated) smooth muscle cells (SMCs) to repair cardiac tissues after myocardial infarction (MI) have been enhanced by the addition of interleukin 10 (IL-10) to the transplanted cells, report researchers in Canada. [More]
Research roundup: ACA lawsuit primer; ACA strategies in 4 states; competitive plans for those eligible for Medicare and Medicaid

Research roundup: ACA lawsuit primer; ACA strategies in 4 states; competitive plans for those eligible for Medicare and Medicaid

In 2012, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the ACA, but that did not end attacks against the law. Since the decision in National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, objecting parties have filed more than 100 cases in federal courts nationwide. [More]
Enhancing autophagy in pre-diabetic patients has potential to prevent onset of diabetes

Enhancing autophagy in pre-diabetic patients has potential to prevent onset of diabetes

Diabetes affects almost 400 million people worldwide. One of the hallmarks of this disease is a loss of pancreatic β cells, which secrete insulin. In many patients the reduction of β cells is associated an accumulation of a toxic form of a protein produced by β cells, known as islet amyloid polypeptide. [More]
Common genetic variation in gene may modify cardiovascular benefit of aspirin

Common genetic variation in gene may modify cardiovascular benefit of aspirin

Aspirin is the gold standard for antiplatelet therapy and a daily low-dose aspirin is widely prescribed for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. [More]
Weight-gain prevention intervention also reduces depression in black women

Weight-gain prevention intervention also reduces depression in black women

An intervention program aimed at helping obese women maintain their weight without adding pounds also significantly reduced depression in nearly half the participants, according to a new study from Duke University. [More]
Discovery presents new challenges for HIV eradication efforts

Discovery presents new challenges for HIV eradication efforts

The most critical barrier for curing HIV-1 infection is the presence of the viral reservoir, the cells in which the HIV virus can lie dormant for many years and avoid elimination by antiretroviral drugs. Very little has been known about when and where the viral reservoir is established during acute HIV-1 infection, or the extent to which it is susceptible to early antiretroviral therapy (ART). [More]
National Med Care partners with Taking You Forward for marketing pharmaceutical products in the U.S.

National Med Care partners with Taking You Forward for marketing pharmaceutical products in the U.S.

Richmond Private Equity Group Limited announced today that its "portfolio company", National Med Care Ltd, a Salt Lake City Utah, based pharmaceutical marketing firm has entered into an agreement with Taking You Forward Inc., a Cebu Philippines based BPO firm to form a joint venture for the marketing of its compound pharmaceutical products in the United States. [More]
Phase 3 VIVID-DME trial of EYLEA Injection for treatment of DME shows improvement in visual acuity

Phase 3 VIVID-DME trial of EYLEA Injection for treatment of DME shows improvement in visual acuity

Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. today announced that in the Phase 3 VIVID-DME trial of EYLEA® (aflibercept) Injection for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME), EYLEA 2 milligrams (mg) dosed monthly (2Q4) and EYLEA 2 mg dosed every two months (after 5 initial monthly injections, 2Q8) showed a sustained improvement from baseline in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at week 100 (2 years), compared to laser photocoagulation. [More]
Consumption of probiotics during 30 days helps diminish accumulation of fat in liver

Consumption of probiotics during 30 days helps diminish accumulation of fat in liver

Spanish scientists have demonstrated through an experiment on obese rats that the consumption of probiotics during thirty days helps diminish the accumulation of fat in the liver. [More]
Salk scientists identify gene that fights metastasis of common lung cancer

Salk scientists identify gene that fights metastasis of common lung cancer

Scientists at the Salk Institute have identified a gene responsible for stopping the movement of cancer from the lungs to other parts of the body, indicating a new way to fight one of the world's deadliest cancers. [More]
Lipoic acid appears to reset and synchronize circadian rhythms

Lipoic acid appears to reset and synchronize circadian rhythms

Researchers have discovered a possible explanation for the surprisingly large range of biological effects that are linked to a micronutrient called lipoic acid: It appears to reset and synchronize circadian rhythms, or the "biological clock" found in most life forms. [More]