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Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food people eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body.

After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach.

When people eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into the cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body in the urine. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose.
Neighbourhood deprivation link to diabetes strengthened

Neighbourhood deprivation link to diabetes strengthened

A large study based on a policy of semi-randomised dispersal of refugees within a country supports the notion that living in a deprived neighbourhood can increase people's risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. [More]
New miniaturized microscope offers unprecedented insight into nervous system function

New miniaturized microscope offers unprecedented insight into nervous system function

A microscope about the size of a penny is giving scientists a new window into the everyday activity of cells within the spinal cord. The innovative technology revealed that astrocytes--cells in the nervous system that do not conduct electrical signals and were traditionally viewed as merely supportive--unexpectedly react to intense sensation. [More]
Comprehensive dilated eye exams may provide clear view of eye health

Comprehensive dilated eye exams may provide clear view of eye health

David Watson has worn glasses to correct nearsightedness the majority of his life, and had his vision checked regularly to make sure his prescription was up to date. But when his wife convinced him to have a comprehensive dilated eye exam, he got a surprise. His doctor told him something didn't look right with his retina, the light sensitive tissue at the back of his eye. His retina was torn, and he had not had any symptoms. [More]
Diabetic patients at risk for developing retinal diabetic neuropathy

Diabetic patients at risk for developing retinal diabetic neuropathy

A University of Iowa-led study of diabetes-related vision impairment holds good news -- and some bad news -- for patients with signs of these disorders. [More]
Study highlights significant burden of migraine on family activities

Study highlights significant burden of migraine on family activities

The debilitating pain and disability of migraine also attacks the emotional, social and financial fabric of a family, according to a new study conducted by researchers at Montefiore Headache Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, affiliated with the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Vedanta Research, the Mayo Clinic and Allergan plc. The findings were published today in Volume 91, Issue 5 of Mayo Clinic Proceedings. [More]
Culturally sensitive lifestyle intervention promotes healthy-living behaviors among Latinas

Culturally sensitive lifestyle intervention promotes healthy-living behaviors among Latinas

A culturally sensitive lifestyle intervention showed promise at motivating Latinas living in the U.S. to eat better and exercise more by connecting healthy-living behaviors with the lives of saints and prominent religious figures, new studies found. [More]
Little and often gives exercise benefits in Type 2 diabetes

Little and often gives exercise benefits in Type 2 diabetes

Sedentary, overweight adults with Type 2 diabetes can improve their cardiometabolic profile by engaging in very brief but regular periods of light walking or resistance exercise, research suggests. [More]
Bonn researchers identify new technique to measure activity of brown fat cells

Bonn researchers identify new technique to measure activity of brown fat cells

Brown fat cells can burn fat to generate heat. University of Bonn researchers have discovered a new method to measure the activity of brown fat cells in humans and mice. The researchers showed that microRNA-92a can be used as an indirect measure for the activity of energy consuming brown fat cells. They showed that a small blood sample was sufficient. Results were published in "Nature Communications," a well-known scientific journal. [More]
New research suggests fasting not required before cholesterol, triglyceride measurement

New research suggests fasting not required before cholesterol, triglyceride measurement

New research from Denmark, Canada and the US involving more than 300,000 individuals suggests that patients do not need to check their cholesterol levels on an empty stomach. So far fasting has been required before cholesterol and triglyceride measurement in all countries except Denmark, where non-fasting blood sampling has been used since 2009. [More]
Working in night shifts may increase risk of coronary heart disease

Working in night shifts may increase risk of coronary heart disease

Working at night is unhealthy for the heart and increases the risk of sustaining coronary heart disease, meaning a disease of the coronary arteries. This is the result of a current, and one of the largest American cooperation studies under the management of Eva Schernhammer of the epidemiology division of MedUni Wien, which was published in the top journal JAMA today. First author is Celine Vetter of Harvard University in Boston. [More]
Rapamycin drug could target neural damage linked to Leigh syndrome

Rapamycin drug could target neural damage linked to Leigh syndrome

Salk Institute scientists showed how an FDA-approved drug boosts the health of brain cells by limiting their energy use. Like removing unnecessary lighting from a financially strapped household to save on electricity bills, the drug--called rapamycin--prolongs the survival of diseased neurons by forcing them to reduce protein production to conserve cellular energy. [More]
TGen scientists trace likely origins, dispersal of fungus that causes Valley Fever

TGen scientists trace likely origins, dispersal of fungus that causes Valley Fever

Using the latest in genomic analysis technologies, scientists at the Translational Genomics Research Institute have tracked the likely origins and dispersal of the fungus that causes Valley Fever, according to a study published today in the journal mBio, the premiere journal for reporting high impact microbiological research. [More]
Regular aspirin use may help reduce risk of bile duct cancer

Regular aspirin use may help reduce risk of bile duct cancer

Regular use of aspirin was linked with a significantly reduced risk of developing bile duct cancer, also called cholangiocarcinoma, in a recent study. The findings, which are published in the journal Hepatology, indicate that additional research on the potential of aspirin for preventing bile duct cancer is warranted. [More]
New fruit fly model study reveals metabolic pathway that can be targeted to treat FXS patients

New fruit fly model study reveals metabolic pathway that can be targeted to treat FXS patients

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common genetically inherited cause of intellectual disability in humans. New research shows how the hormone insulin -- usually associated with diabetes -- is involved in the daily activity patterns and cognitive deficits in the fruitfly model of FXS, according to a new study from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania published online this month in Molecular Psychiatry in advance of the print issue. [More]
International researchers make crucial discovery on formation, growth of blood vessels

International researchers make crucial discovery on formation, growth of blood vessels

As blood vessels grow, the cells that compose them must make a choice between forming side-branches or expanding the vessel surface and increasing its diameter. Now Prof. Holger Gerhardt at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) in the Helmholtz Association and his international research teams have made a crucial disovery about this process: the cells can behave as a collective, moving in the same direction together. [More]
ATR-FTIR spectroscopy could be effective for detecting ulcerative colitis

ATR-FTIR spectroscopy could be effective for detecting ulcerative colitis

A minimally invasive screening for ulcerative colitis, a debilitating gastrointestinal tract disorder, using emerging infrared technology could be a rapid and cost-effective method for detecting disease that eliminates the need for biopsies and intrusive testing of the human body, according to researchers at Georgia State University. [More]
Endocrine Society urges physicians to increase screening for primary aldosteronism

Endocrine Society urges physicians to increase screening for primary aldosteronism

The Endocrine Society today issued a Clinical Practice Guideline calling on physicians to ramp up screening for primary aldosteronism, a common cause of high blood pressure. [More]
Clinical inertia puts Type 2 diabetes patients at further risk of preventable complications

Clinical inertia puts Type 2 diabetes patients at further risk of preventable complications

People with Type 2 diabetes are being 'let down' because they are being forced to wait for further treatment when needed. [More]
Salk scientists reveal how cellular fuel gauge plays unexpected role in development

Salk scientists reveal how cellular fuel gauge plays unexpected role in development

Salk scientists have revealed how a cellular "fuel gauge" responsible for monitoring and managing cells' energy processes also has an unexpected role in development. This critical link could help researchers better understand cancer and diabetes pathways. [More]
Administering flu vaccinations in the morning could induce greater antibody responses

Administering flu vaccinations in the morning could induce greater antibody responses

New research from the University of Birmingham has shown that flu vaccinations are more effective when administered in the morning. [More]
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