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Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food people eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body.

After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach.

When people eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into the cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body in the urine. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose.
Researchers detect blood-brain barrier leakage in people with early AD using contrast-enhanced MRI

Researchers detect blood-brain barrier leakage in people with early AD using contrast-enhanced MRI

Researchers using contrast-enhanced MRI have identified leakages in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) of people with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), according to a new study published online in the journal Radiology. The results suggest that increased BBB permeability may represent a key mechanism in the early stages of the disease. [More]
Portable breath sensor to detect lifestyle diseases? An interview with Osamu Tsuboi, Fujitsu Laboratories

Portable breath sensor to detect lifestyle diseases? An interview with Osamu Tsuboi, Fujitsu Laboratories

Generally, it is thought that there is a connection between concentrations of ammonia and liver disease, such as fatty liver and cirrhosis, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, and kidney failure. [More]
Global study finds weight loss could be key for tackling pre-diabetes

Global study finds weight loss could be key for tackling pre-diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes is the world’s fastest growing chronic disease and is linked to the increasing number of overweight people. One in 16 people (3.9 million) in the UK are thought to have diabetes, both diagnosed and undiagnosed. [More]
Children with strong family history of type 2 diabetes or CVD prone to have high cholesterol levels

Children with strong family history of type 2 diabetes or CVD prone to have high cholesterol levels

A new study published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes shows that children with a strong family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or type 2 diabetes were found to have cholesterol levels significantly higher than children with no family history of those conditions. [More]
European cardiovascular prevention guidelines emphasise population approaches

European cardiovascular prevention guidelines emphasise population approaches

The European Society of Cardiology has updated its cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines to include, for the first time, population approaches to be implemented by legislators, schools and workplaces. [More]
PNNL scientists play central role in National Microbiome Initiative

PNNL scientists play central role in National Microbiome Initiative

Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are playing a central role as the nation devotes more than $500 million to understand communities of microorganisms and their role in climate science, food production and human health. [More]
Researchers develop new drugs for melanoma

Researchers develop new drugs for melanoma

Finding new, more effective and personalised treatments for cancer is the challenge of many researchers. A challenge that has been successfully met by a team from Inserm led by Stéphane Rocchi, which has just synthesised and developed new drugs for melanoma. [More]
Updates on sixty-ninth World Health Assembly

Updates on sixty-ninth World Health Assembly

Delegates at the World Health Assembly have agreed resolutions and decisions on air pollution, chemicals, the health workforce, childhood obesity, violence, noncommunicable diseases, and the election of the next Director-General. [More]
NR supplements can reduce diabetes-related complications in mice

NR supplements can reduce diabetes-related complications in mice

A naturally occurring vitamin, nicotinamide riboside (NR), can lower blood sugar levels, reduce fatty liver, and prevent peripheral nerve damage in mouse models of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D), according to a new study by researchers at the University of Iowa and the Iowa City VA Health Care System. [More]
Salk scientists discover REV-ERBα protein that controls strength of circadian rhythm

Salk scientists discover REV-ERBα protein that controls strength of circadian rhythm

At noon every day, levels of genes and proteins throughout your body are drastically different than they are at midnight. Disruptions to this 24-hour cycle of physiological activity are why jet lag or a bad night's sleep can alter your appetite and sleep patterns for days--and even contribute to conditions like heart disease, sleep disorders and cancers. [More]
Diabetes societies endorse 'metabolic surgery'

Diabetes societies endorse 'metabolic surgery'

An "unprecedented" number of societies have endorsed guidelines recommending metabolic surgery for patients with diabetes - and not just for patients with severe obesity. [More]
Small drug-like molecule that alters perception of food may hold key to extending human healthspan

Small drug-like molecule that alters perception of food may hold key to extending human healthspan

Researchers at the Buck Institute have shown a new effect on aging via a small drug-like molecule that alters the perception of food in the nematode C. elegans. Publishing in Aging Cell, researchers "tricked" the worm's metabolism into a state of caloric restriction, extending the animal's lifespan by 50 percent. [More]
RBFOX2 dysregulation may cause heart damage in diabetic patients

RBFOX2 dysregulation may cause heart damage in diabetic patients

Cardiac complications are the number one cause of death among diabetics. Now a team of scientists has uncovered a molecular mechanism involved in a common form of heart damage found in people with diabetes. [More]
Accumulation of gut bacterial metabolite may lead to serious health problems in CKD patients

Accumulation of gut bacterial metabolite may lead to serious health problems in CKD patients

In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the accumulation of a gut bacterial metabolite that's normally excreted in urine may contribute to serious health problems. The findings come from a study appearing in an upcoming issue of the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. [More]
Prenatal fruit consumption linked to improved cognitive development in infants

Prenatal fruit consumption linked to improved cognitive development in infants

Most people have heard the old adage "an apple a day keeps the doctor away." It's an old truth that encompasses more than just apples--eating fruit in general is well known to reduce risk for a wide variety of health conditions such as heart disease and stroke. [More]
Vision Express advises Britons to be 'sun safe' when choosing eyewear

Vision Express advises Britons to be 'sun safe' when choosing eyewear

Britons are putting their sight at risk – potentially exposing themselves to cataracts and macular degeneration – by choosing vanity over UV protection when buying sunglasses, new research from Vision Express has revealed. [More]
World Health Assembly underscores need for multisectoral action to achieve health-related SDGs

World Health Assembly underscores need for multisectoral action to achieve health-related SDGs

Christiana Figueres, Executive Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, addressed the World Health Assembly today. [More]
Clinical study supports safety, efficacy of GI Windows’ IAS as treatment option for Type 2 diabetes

Clinical study supports safety, efficacy of GI Windows’ IAS as treatment option for Type 2 diabetes

GI Windows, Inc., a clinical-stage medical device company, today announced the presentation of six-month results of the first-ever clinical study evaluating the endoscopic creation of a dual-path enteral diversion using the company’s Incision-less Anastomosis System (IAS) at Digestive Disease Week® 2016 (DDW), in San Diego, Calif. [More]
Majority of young adults with abdominal obesity unaware of CKD risk

Majority of young adults with abdominal obesity unaware of CKD risk

Many young adults with abdominal obesity exhibit a readily detectable risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), yet the vast majority don't know they're at risk, according to a study of nationwide health data led by Albert Einstein College of Medicine researchers that was published online today in the journal PLOS ONE. [More]
Even light or non-drinkers who become easily inebriated may develop fatty liver disease

Even light or non-drinkers who become easily inebriated may develop fatty liver disease

People who have reduced enzyme activity to breakdown active aldehyde, i.e., those who become easily inebriated, are more likely to develop fatty liver disease even if they do not drink alcohol. [More]
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