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Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food people eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body.

After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach.

When people eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into the cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body in the urine. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose.
New WHO guidelines advise lowering sugar intake

New WHO guidelines advise lowering sugar intake

New World Health Organization guidelines recommend that people reduce their daily free sugar intake to less than 10% of their total calorie intake, with a reduction to 5% representing a further target. [More]
New cell powerhouse sequencing technique may provide clearer picture of inherited disease risk

New cell powerhouse sequencing technique may provide clearer picture of inherited disease risk

A new sequencing technique may provide a clearer picture of how genes in mitochondria, the "powerhouses" that turn sugar into energy in human cells, shape each person's inherited risk for diabetes, heart disease and cancer, according to a study conducted at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published online this week in the journal Nucleic Acids Research. [More]
Study highlights how obesity is linked to brain-level molecular changes

Study highlights how obesity is linked to brain-level molecular changes

Researchers at Aalto University and University of Turku have revealed how obesity is associated with altered opioid neurotransmission in the brain. [More]
Resverlogix, Emerald Logic complete collaborative research program

Resverlogix, Emerald Logic complete collaborative research program

Resverlogix Corp. today announced that it has completed a collaborative research program with Emerald Logic, a leader in quantitative analytics. Using Fast Collective Evolution Technology (FACET), Emerald Logic analyzed Resverlogix's complete clinical dataset including all measurements obtained from each of 798 patients who participated in the Company's Phase 2 clinical trials ASSERT, SUSTAIN and ASSURE. [More]
Mayo Clinic, Gentag partner to develop wearable biosensors for treating obesity, diabetes

Mayo Clinic, Gentag partner to develop wearable biosensors for treating obesity, diabetes

Mayo Clinic and Gentag, Inc. have reached an agreement to develop the next generation of wearable biosensors designed to fight obesity and diabetes. [More]
Reducing premature deaths from noncommunicable diseases: an interview with Dr Shanthi Mendis, WHO

Reducing premature deaths from noncommunicable diseases: an interview with Dr Shanthi Mendis, WHO

The main types of NCD are cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes. These have been identified as the principal conditions for three main reasons. One is that, collectively, they contribute the most to the total disease burden. [More]
Lexicon updates drug development progress, reports 2014 financial results

Lexicon updates drug development progress, reports 2014 financial results

Lexicon Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company focused on developing breakthrough treatments for human disease, today updated its drug development progress and reported financial results for the three months and year ended December 31, 2014. [More]
New healthcare law may threaten federally subsidized coverage for over 2.5 million Americans

New healthcare law may threaten federally subsidized coverage for over 2.5 million Americans

A new study shows that over 2.5 million Americans who have a serious mental health condition in 34 states will become uninsured in 2016, if the Supreme Court rolls back tax credit subsidies that currently make it affordable for those individuals to purchase coverage on federally-run health insurance marketplaces under the Affordable Care Act. [More]
Life expectancy for Spaniards increases due to 'cardiovascular revolution'

Life expectancy for Spaniards increases due to 'cardiovascular revolution'

Over the last century, life expectancy for Spaniards has increased by 40 years. A study by the International University of La Rioja highlights the main cause, since 1980, as being the reduced incidence of cardiovascular diseases while other pathologies, such as mental illnesses and certain types of cancer, have been seen to rise. The authors predict that the effects of the economic recession on mortality will show up in the long-term. [More]
Common antidepressant medications not helpful for people with mood, anxiety disorders

Common antidepressant medications not helpful for people with mood, anxiety disorders

Studies indicate that the majority of people with mood and anxiety disorders who receive the most commonly prescribed class of antidepressant medications, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors or SSRI's, are not helped by these medications. SSRIs are designed to increase serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is key to maintenance of mood. [More]
Study on spider venom may lead to new class of potent painkillers

Study on spider venom may lead to new class of potent painkillers

New research shows that seven compounds of the countless found in spider venom block a key step in the body's ability to pass pain signals to the brain. The hunt for a medicine based on just one of these compounds, which would open up a new class of potent painkillers, is now a step closer according to new research published in the British Journal of Pharmacology. [More]
Study finds that BMI in healthy adolescents has significant association with blood pressures

Study finds that BMI in healthy adolescents has significant association with blood pressures

A recent study published in the American Journal of Hypertension has found that body mass index (BMI) in healthy adolescents has a statistically significant association with both systolic blood pressures (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP), and highlights the significance of the global trend of rapidly increasing adolescent obesity. [More]
New report: Prevalence of CKD in the U.S. projected to increase 16.7% by 2030

New report: Prevalence of CKD in the U.S. projected to increase 16.7% by 2030

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) will rise in the United States, according to a new report led by RTI International and published in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases during March's National Kidney Month. [More]
Teen-LABS study explores safety, health effects of surgical weight loss procedures

Teen-LABS study explores safety, health effects of surgical weight loss procedures

Cardiovascular risks of severe pediatric obesity, assessed among adolescents participating in the "Teen Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery" (Teen-LABS) study, were published this week in JAMA Pediatrics. Teen-LABS is a multi-center clinical study funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases at the National Institutes of Health that is examining the safety and health effects of surgical weight loss procedures. [More]
New guidelines advise nearly all women, people with AFib to take blood thinners

New guidelines advise nearly all women, people with AFib to take blood thinners

Nearly all women and people over 65 in the U.S. with atrial fibrillation are advised to take blood thinners under new guidelines based on an analysis from the Duke Clinical Research Institute. [More]
Experts review diagnostic approaches to treat obstructive coronary artery disease in women

Experts review diagnostic approaches to treat obstructive coronary artery disease in women

Obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in women often presents with different types of symptoms than in men and can be challenging to diagnose due to a variety of factors. A national panel of experts convened to review the latest evidence regarding CAD in women, diagnostic approaches, and new types of tests and technologies. [More]
People with diabetes more prone to depression, anxiety

People with diabetes more prone to depression, anxiety

People with diabetes are more prone to anxiety and depression than those with other chronic diseases that require similar levels of management. The reasons for this aren't well understood, but Joslin Diabetes Center researchers have discovered one potential explanation. [More]
Transition completes enrolment of patients in ELND005 Phase 2 study for treatment of AD patients

Transition completes enrolment of patients in ELND005 Phase 2 study for treatment of AD patients

Transition Therapeutics Inc. announced that its wholly owned subsidiary, Transition Therapeutics Ireland Limited completed enrolment of the Phase 2 clinical study evaluating neuropsychiatric drug candidate ELND005 as a treatment for agitation and aggression in patients with mild, moderate and severe Alzheimer's disease ("AD"). [More]
Study explores use of antipsychotic medications among pediatric patients

Study explores use of antipsychotic medications among pediatric patients

More kids nationwide are taking medications designed to treat such mental illnesses as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and pediatricians and psychiatrists at the University of Vermont want to know why. [More]
Study reports 10% reduction in overall C-section births in Portugal

Study reports 10% reduction in overall C-section births in Portugal

A new study reports a significant decline in the rate of cesarean section (C-section) births in Portugal. Findings published in Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, a journal of the Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology, indicate a 10% reduction in overall C-section rates between 2009 and 2014, with a 14% reduction in state-hospitals during the same time period. [More]