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Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food people eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body.

After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach.

When people eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into the cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body in the urine. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose.
Research: MHCI protein moonlights in nervous system to regulate synapses

Research: MHCI protein moonlights in nervous system to regulate synapses

When it comes to the brain, "more is better" seems like an obvious assumption. But in the case of synapses, which are the connections between brain cells, too many or too few can both disrupt brain function. [More]
Scientists identify potent inhibitors to combat common obesity gene

Scientists identify potent inhibitors to combat common obesity gene

Individuals who are genetically predisposed to obesity may soon have a therapeutic solution to combat their condition. A research team led by scientists from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has identified several potent inhibitors that selectively target FTO, the common fat mass and obesity-associated gene. [More]
BIDMC investigators develop three-minute assessment that identifies delirium in older hospital patients

BIDMC investigators develop three-minute assessment that identifies delirium in older hospital patients

Delirium is a state of confusion that develops suddenly, often following an acute medical illness, a surgical procedure or a hospitalization. Although delirium is estimated to complicate hospital stays for over 2.5 million elderly individuals in the U.S. each year, this common condition often goes undetected. The end result can be serious complications with sometimes devastating consequences for vulnerable hospitalized elders. [More]
Internal calorie counter evaluates food based on its caloric density, shows neuroimaging study

Internal calorie counter evaluates food based on its caloric density, shows neuroimaging study

As you glance over a menu or peruse the shelves in a supermarket, you may be thinking about how each food will taste and whether it's nutritious, or you may be trying to decide what you're in the mood for. [More]
Dexcom SHARE CGM remote mobile communications device receives FDA approval

Dexcom SHARE CGM remote mobile communications device receives FDA approval

Dexcom, Inc., a leader in continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) for patients with diabetes, announced today that it has received U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for its CGM remote mobile communications device: Dexcom SHARE. [More]
Lactobacillus-containing probiotics could improve lupus symptoms

Lactobacillus-containing probiotics could improve lupus symptoms

Lactobacillus species, commonly seen in yogurt cultures, correlate, in the guts of mouse models, with mitigation of lupus symptoms, while Lachnospiraceae, a type of Clostridia, correlate with worsening, according to research published ahead of print in Applied and Environmental Microbiology. [More]
New study reveals how cancer becomes drug resistant over time

New study reveals how cancer becomes drug resistant over time

Like a colony of bacteria or species of animals, cancer cells within a tumor must evolve to survive. A dose of chemotherapy may kill hundreds of thousands of cancer cells, for example, but a single cell with a unique mutation can survive and quickly generate a new batch of drug-resistant cells, making cancer hard to combat. [More]
Regeneron, Sanofi announce initiation of dupilumab Phase 3 study in adults with atopic dermatitis

Regeneron, Sanofi announce initiation of dupilumab Phase 3 study in adults with atopic dermatitis

Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Sanofi today announced that the first patients have been dosed in a Phase 3 clinical study of dupilumab, an investigational therapy that blocks IL-4 and IL-13 signaling, in adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD) that is not adequately controlled with topical AD medications. [More]
Research: Ageing and depression are associated with epigenetic changes

Research: Ageing and depression are associated with epigenetic changes

Psychological stress and stress-related psychiatric disorders are associated with increased risk for aging-related diseases, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this relation are unknown. [More]
Animal study shows high-fat diet is more harmful to males than females

Animal study shows high-fat diet is more harmful to males than females

Male and female brains are not equal when it comes to the biological response to a high-fat diet. [More]
Children infected with enterovirus more likely to have type 1 diabetes

Children infected with enterovirus more likely to have type 1 diabetes

A new study published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes) shows that children who have been infected with enterovirus are 48% more likely to have developed type 1 diabetes. The study is by Dr Tsai Chung-Li, China Medical University, Taiwan, and colleagues. [More]
Low vitamin D levels linked to poor brain function after sudden cardiac arrest

Low vitamin D levels linked to poor brain function after sudden cardiac arrest

Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of poor brain function after sudden cardiac arrest by seven-fold, according to research presented at Acute Cardiovascular Care 2014 by Dr Jin Wi from Korea. Vitamin D deficiency also led to a higher chance of dying after sudden cardiac arrest. [More]
Depression, anxiety after MI more common in women than men

Depression, anxiety after MI more common in women than men

Women are more likely to develop anxiety and depression after a heart attack (myocardial infarction; MI) than men, according to research presented at Acute Cardiovascular Care 2014 by Professor Pranas Serpytis from Lithuania. [More]
Anaesthesia editorial challenges placenta's role in pre-eclampsia

Anaesthesia editorial challenges placenta's role in pre-eclampsia

Pre-eclampsia, the potentially deadly condition that affects pregnant women, may be caused by problems meeting the oxygen demands of the growing fetus, according to an editorial in the November issue of Anaesthesia, the journal of the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland. [More]
Research roundup: Malpractice reforms and doctors' practice; Medicaid expansion's effect

Research roundup: Malpractice reforms and doctors' practice; Medicaid expansion's effect

Defensive medicine is considered by many to be a major source of wasteful medical spending in the United States. [More]
TSRI scientists identify long-sought activating molecules for subset of immune system cells

TSRI scientists identify long-sought activating molecules for subset of immune system cells

Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have identified the long-sought activating molecules for a rare but crucial subset of immune system cells that help rally other white blood cells to fight infection. [More]
Scientists identify two microRNA molecules that control chronic inflammation

Scientists identify two microRNA molecules that control chronic inflammation

University of Utah scientists have identified two microRNA molecules that control chronic inflammation, a discovery that one day may help researchers prevent certain fatal or debilitating conditions before they start. [More]
Mexican students create zero calorie sweetener for people with diabetes, hypertension, obesity

Mexican students create zero calorie sweetener for people with diabetes, hypertension, obesity

Since Elsa Martinez was diagnosed with type II diabetes she made sure to be informed about those food products that wouldn't aggravate her health. [More]
Cell transplantation treatment may benefit people with spinal cord injury

Cell transplantation treatment may benefit people with spinal cord injury

Two studies recently published in Cell Transplantation reveal that cell transplantation may be an effective treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI), a major cause of disability and paralysis with no current restorative therapies. [More]
Researchers identify two microRNA molecules that control chronic inflammation

Researchers identify two microRNA molecules that control chronic inflammation

University of Utah scientists have identified two microRNA molecules that control chronic inflammation, a discovery that one day may help researchers prevent certain fatal or debilitating conditions before they start. [More]