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Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food people eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body.

After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach.

When people eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into the cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body in the urine. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose.
Roche submits cobas EGFR v2 test PMA to FDA as companion diagnostic test for AZD9291

Roche submits cobas EGFR v2 test PMA to FDA as companion diagnostic test for AZD9291

Roche today announced it has submitted the cobas EGFR Mutation Test v2 for Premarket Approval (PMA) to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, as a companion diagnostic test for AZD9291, an AstraZeneca investigational therapy for non-small cell lung cancer patients with an acquired resistant mutation. [More]
IBM, CVS Health to transform care management services for patients with chronic disease

IBM, CVS Health to transform care management services for patients with chronic disease

CVS Health (NYSE: CVS) and IBM today announced they will use predictive analytics and Watson cognitive computing to transform care management services for patients with chronic disease. [More]
New research shows promising progress in use of anti-inflammatory cytokine for T1D treatment

New research shows promising progress in use of anti-inflammatory cytokine for T1D treatment

New research from Uppsala University shows promising progress in the use of anti-inflammatory cytokine for treatment of type 1 diabetes. The study, published in the open access journal Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing Group), reveals that administration of interleukin-35 (a protein made by immune cells) to mice with type 1 diabetes, reverses or cures the disease by maintaining a normal blood glucose level and the immune tolerance. [More]
Bioenergetic analysis of pancreatic beta-cells shows impaired metabolic signature in type 2 diabetes patients

Bioenergetic analysis of pancreatic beta-cells shows impaired metabolic signature in type 2 diabetes patients

Impaired activation of mitochondrial energy metabolism in the presence of glucose has been demonstrated in pancreatic beta-cells from patients with type 2 diabetes. The cause of this dysfunction has been unknown. Publishing online in Endocrinology, Buck Institute assistant research professor Akos Gerencser, PhD, shows that in patients with type 2 diabetes the balance between supply and demand of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔψM) is altered causing a decrease in the signaling that turns on insulin secretion. [More]
NEJM publishes positive clinical results from Phase 2 clinical study of volanesorsen

NEJM publishes positive clinical results from Phase 2 clinical study of volanesorsen

Isis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., the leader in RNA-targeted therapeutics, and Akcea Therapeutics, its wholly owned subsidiary, announced today that The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) has published positive clinical results from a Phase 2 clinical study evaluating volanesorsen (formerly ISIS-APOCIII Rx) in patients with very high to severely high triglycerides. [More]
Blocking the expression of certain gene reduces excessive fat in patients

Blocking the expression of certain gene reduces excessive fat in patients

By blocking the expression of a certain gene in patients, University of Montreal researchers have contributed to the demonstration of great decreases in the concentration of triglycerides in their blood, even in various severe forms of hypertriglyceridemia and regardless of the base values or the treatment the patient usually receives. [More]
Low blood level of 4 proteins can help diabetics protect against immune attack

Low blood level of 4 proteins can help diabetics protect against immune attack

Patients with type 1 diabetes have significantly lower blood levels of four proteins that help protect their tissue from attack by their immune system, scientists report. [More]
Innovative course helps make medical students more confident about dealing with health disparities

Innovative course helps make medical students more confident about dealing with health disparities

An innovative three-month elective course has helped make some first-year medical students at Albert Einstein College of Medicine more confident about dealing with health disparities they'll likely encounter as physicians, according to a follow-up study published online today in the journal Academic Medicine. [More]
TGen scientist named a recipient of 2015 Bisgrove Scholars award

TGen scientist named a recipient of 2015 Bisgrove Scholars award

Dr. Candace Lewis, a research scientist at the Translational Genomics Research Institute, is one of five recipients of the 2015 Bisgrove Scholars award, Science Foundation Arizona announced today. [More]
LixiLan-O Phase III clinical trial meets primary endpoint in patients with type 2 diabetes

LixiLan-O Phase III clinical trial meets primary endpoint in patients with type 2 diabetes

Sanofi announced today that the LixiLan-O Phase III clinical trial met its primary objective in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin. The fixed-ratio combination of insulin glargine 100 units/mL and lixisenatide, a GLP-1 RA, demonstrated statistically superior reduction in HbA1c (average blood glucose over the previous three months) compared with lixisenatide and compared with insulin glargine 100 units/mL. [More]
IOF, EOS to jointly hold Middle East & Africa Osteoporosis Meeting in Abu Dhabi

IOF, EOS to jointly hold Middle East & Africa Osteoporosis Meeting in Abu Dhabi

With a growing senior population and an increase in unhealthy lifestyles, the prevalence of osteoporosis and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is soaring in the Middle East and North African region. In response to the dramatic increase in these diseases within the region the International Osteoporosis Foundation, in cooperation with the Emirates Osteoporosis Society, will be holding the 3rd Middle East & Africa Osteoporosis Meeting from December 5-7, 2015 in Abu Dhabi. [More]
EUMODIC brings together scientists to study functions of 320 genes in mice

EUMODIC brings together scientists to study functions of 320 genes in mice

Since mice share 90 percent of our genes they play an important role in understanding human genetics. The European Mouse Disease Clinic brought together scientists from across Europe to investigate the functions of 320 genes in mice. Over half of these genes had no previously known role, and the remaining genes were poorly understood. [More]

BioCision signs deal to develop CoolCell freezing systems for Cook Regentec’s CellSeal vials

BioCision, LLC today announced that they have entered into an exclusive partnership with Cook Regentec to develop two custom CoolCell controlled-rate cell freezing systems for Cook’s closed-system cell therapy CellSeal vials. [More]
‘Digital Doctor’ study examines attitudes of primary care physicians to new healthcare technologies

‘Digital Doctor’ study examines attitudes of primary care physicians to new healthcare technologies

Healthcare apps and wearable tech have a long future in the treatment of patients, according to a panel of Primary Care Physicians (PCPs) interviewed as part of a newly launched Ipsos Healthcare study. [More]
New study estimates link between coffee consumption habits and incidence of mild cognitive impairment

New study estimates link between coffee consumption habits and incidence of mild cognitive impairment

A new study by researchers at the University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy, Geriatric Unit & Laboratory of Gerontology and Geriatrics, IRCCS "Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza", San Giovanni Rotondo, Foggia, Italy, and Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma, Italy, estimates the association between change or constant habits in coffee consumption and the incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), evaluating 1,445 individuals recruited from 5,632 subjects, aged 65-84 year old, from the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging (ILSA), a population-based sample from eight Italian municipalities with a 3.5-year median follow-up. [More]
UC Davis health economists predict total costs of caring for individuals with ASD in the U.S.

UC Davis health economists predict total costs of caring for individuals with ASD in the U.S.

UC Davis health economists have for the first time projected the total costs of caring for all people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the U.S. for the current calendar year and in 10 years if effective interventions and preventive treatments for the condition are not identified and widely available. [More]
New Tel Aviv University study reveals impact of skipping breakfast on the health of diabetics

New Tel Aviv University study reveals impact of skipping breakfast on the health of diabetics

More and more Americans on-the-go are skipping the "most important meal of the day," not eating until lunch. This tendency to miss breakfast has already been linked to the growing epidemic of obesity and cardiovascular problems in the US -- and it may put the health of diabetics at risk as well. [More]
IU awarded $4.5 million NIH grant to create new federally designated diabetes research center

IU awarded $4.5 million NIH grant to create new federally designated diabetes research center

The National Institutes of Health has awarded the Indiana University School of Medicine a five-year, $4.5 million grant to create a new federally designated Indiana Diabetes Research Center, one of just 16 such centers in the country. [More]
New study to explore mechanisms responsible for taste changes following RYGB, diet-induced obesity

New study to explore mechanisms responsible for taste changes following RYGB, diet-induced obesity

Currently, one of the most effective surgical methods for treating obesity is the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, which limits the amount of food and drink that can be ingested at one time and the amount of calories and nutrients absorbed through the intestinal tract. An unintended side effect of RYGB is that it reduces the patient's taste for sweet and fatty foods—but there is no scientific explanation for why these taste changes occur. [More]
Weight loss through lifestyle modifications, bariatric surgery can reduce features of NASH

Weight loss through lifestyle modifications, bariatric surgery can reduce features of NASH

Weight loss through both lifestyle modification and bariatric surgery can significantly reduce features of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a disease characterized by fat in the liver, according to two new studies published in Gastroenterology, the official journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. [More]
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