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Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food people eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body.

After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach.

When people eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into the cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body in the urine. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose.
New Clinical Practice Guideline for diagnosis, treatment of acromegaly

New Clinical Practice Guideline for diagnosis, treatment of acromegaly

The Endocrine Society today issued a Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) for the diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly, a rare condition caused by excess growth hormone in the blood. [More]
Hospital bed positioning can affect outcomes of stroke patients

Hospital bed positioning can affect outcomes of stroke patients

During the first 24 hours after a stroke, attention to detail --such as hospital bed positioning -- is critical to patient outcomes. [More]
Surgeons fine-tune imaging techniques to enhance visualization of breast tumors, persistent wounds

Surgeons fine-tune imaging techniques to enhance visualization of breast tumors, persistent wounds

Surgeons are tweaking existing computer technologies to enhance their visualization of cancerous tumors and persistent wounds according to two studies presented this week at the 2014 American College of Surgeons Clinical Congress. [More]
BRI receives JDRF grant to explore why people with type 1 diabetes continue to produce insulin

BRI receives JDRF grant to explore why people with type 1 diabetes continue to produce insulin

Scientists at Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason are studying a critical question in type 1 diabetes: Why do some people who get type 1 diabetes continue to produce small amounts of insulin over time while others stop? Researchers have found at the time of diagnosis with type 1 diabetes that many people continue to produce small amounts of insulin. [More]
Changes in cell metabolism slow growth of colorectal cancer

Changes in cell metabolism slow growth of colorectal cancer

Cancer is an unwanted experiment in progress. As the disease advances, tumor cells accumulate mutations, eventually arriving at ones that give them the insidious power to grow uncontrollably and spread. Distinguishing drivers of cancer from benign mutations open opportunities for developing targeted cancer therapies. [More]
Study: Nearly 5% of U.S. children affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

Study: Nearly 5% of U.S. children affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

Nearly 5 percent of U.S. children may be affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, according to a new study co-authored by Sanford Research's Gene Hoyme, M.D., and Amy Elliott, Ph.D., and published by Pediatrics. [More]
UAlberta researchers discover link between pulmonary hypertension, diabetes and cancer

UAlberta researchers discover link between pulmonary hypertension, diabetes and cancer

A UAlberta team has discovered that a protein that plays a critical role in metabolism, the process by which the cell generates energy from foods, is important for the development of pulmonary hypertension, a deadly disease. [More]
University Medical Center's first atrial fibrillation unit opens in Germany

University Medical Center's first atrial fibrillation unit opens in Germany

Nearly 1.8 million people in Germany suffer from atrial fibrillation. This is the most common and clinically significant form of heart rhythm disorder. Shortness of breath, a sudden sense of dizziness, a feeling of pressure in the chest, and palpitations or thumping of the heart so extreme it can be felt beating rapidly and irregularly - this is how many patients describe their first episode of atrial fibrillation. [More]
New study pinpoints complex genetic origins for autoimmune diseases

New study pinpoints complex genetic origins for autoimmune diseases

Scores of autoimmune diseases afflicting one in 12 Americans — ranging from type 1 diabetes, to multiple sclerosis (MS), to rheumatoid arthritis, to asthma — mysteriously cause the immune system to harm tissues within our own bodies. Now, a new study pinpoints the complex genetic origins for many of these diseases, a discovery that may lead to better diagnosis and ultimately to improved treatments. [More]
Study: Certain prostate cancer medications linked to cardiac death risk

Study: Certain prostate cancer medications linked to cardiac death risk

A new study has found that certain prostate cancer medications are linked with an increased risk of dying from heart-related causes in men with congestive heart failure or prior heart attacks. Published in BJU International, the findings will help doctors and patients weigh the benefits and risks of the drugs. [More]
UCLA research could lead to simple saliva test for early diagnosis of deadly diseases

UCLA research could lead to simple saliva test for early diagnosis of deadly diseases

UCLA research could lead to a simple saliva test capable of diagnosing — at an early stage — diabetes and cancer, and perhaps neurological disorders and autoimmune diseases. [More]
New international consortium to advance GPCR research for drug development

New international consortium to advance GPCR research for drug development

The generation of high-resolution pictures of hundreds of medically important proteins known as G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) will be the goal of an ambitious new international partnership. Called the GPCR Consortium, this non-profit initiative brings together major pharmaceutical companies and leading research institutes from three continents to advance GPCR research for drug development. [More]
New model of primary care could improve health of patients with type 2 diabetes

New model of primary care could improve health of patients with type 2 diabetes

A new model of delivering primary care studied by Keck Medicine of the University of Southern California researchers has the potential to improve the health of patients with type 2 diabetes. [More]
Study finds that mental health disorders double heart disease, stroke risks

Study finds that mental health disorders double heart disease, stroke risks

People facing mental health challenges are significantly more likely to have heart disease or stroke, according to a study presented today at the Canadian Cardiovascular Congress. [More]
MinuteClinic enters into clinical collaboration agreement with Lifespan

MinuteClinic enters into clinical collaboration agreement with Lifespan

MinuteClinic, the retail medical clinic of CVS Health, and Lifespan, Rhode Island's largest health system, which includes five partner hospitals and multiple physician groups, announced today that they have entered into a clinical collaboration agreement. [More]
AHI develops TRUHEAL Wound Program for diabetics

AHI develops TRUHEAL Wound Program for diabetics

After nine years of research and development, Advanced Health Institute, a medical startup company, has developed a process that is changing lives called the TRUHEAL Wound Program. Because of the high success rate, major insurers pay AHI based on results of treatments, a revolutionary approach to traditional healthcare. [More]
Salk Institute scientists identify promising target for HIV/AIDS treatment

Salk Institute scientists identify promising target for HIV/AIDS treatment

Like a slumbering dragon, HIV can lay dormant in a person's cells for years, evading medical treatments only to wake up and strike at a later time, quickly replicating itself and destroying the immune system. [More]
Early brain imaging studies may help prevent vascular diseases

Early brain imaging studies may help prevent vascular diseases

Future prevention and treatment strategies for vascular diseases may lie in the evaluation of early brain imaging tests long before heart attacks or strokes occur, according to a systematic review conducted by a team of cardiologists, neuroscientists, and psychiatrists from Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published in the October issue of JACC Cardiovascular Imaging. [More]
Economic impact of hypoglycaemia: an interview with Dr Klaus Henning Jensen

Economic impact of hypoglycaemia: an interview with Dr Klaus Henning Jensen

Hypoglycaemia is the term used to describe a lower than normal blood sugar level. There are a number of things that actually need to be formally defined in order for a hypoglycaemic episode to be diagnosed. [More]
Monash University research explores long-term costs for two main causes of stroke

Monash University research explores long-term costs for two main causes of stroke

New data shows that healthcare and personal costs to support survivors of stroke remains high 10 years on. [More]