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Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food people eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body.

After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach.

When people eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into the cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body in the urine. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose.
Research performed in anemic mice shows acetate stimulates the formation of red blood cells

Research performed in anemic mice shows acetate stimulates the formation of red blood cells

UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers seeking novel treatments for anemia found that giving acetate, the major component of household vinegar, to anemic mice stimulated the formation of new red blood cells. [More]
Sanofi, Regeneron report positive Phase 2 study of dupilumab in patients with CSwNP

Sanofi, Regeneron report positive Phase 2 study of dupilumab in patients with CSwNP

Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: REGN) and Sanofi (EURONEXT: SAN and NYSE: SNY) today announced that a Phase 2a proof-of-concept study of dupilumab, an investigational therapy that blocks IL-4 and IL-13 signaling, met all primary and secondary endpoints in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic sinusitis with nasal polyps (CSwNP) who did not respond to intranasal corticosteroids. [More]
Mymetics' innovative HIV vaccine candidate to enter new preclinical trial

Mymetics' innovative HIV vaccine candidate to enter new preclinical trial

Mymetics Corporation, a pioneer in the research and development of virosome-based vaccines to prevent transmission of human infectious diseases across mucosal membranes, announced today that its innovative HIV vaccine candidate will enter a new preclinical trial to confirm excellent results obtained in a previous trial. [More]
Prenatal maternal stress exposure to Quebec ice storm predicts epigenetic profile of offspring

Prenatal maternal stress exposure to Quebec ice storm predicts epigenetic profile of offspring

The number of days an expectant mother was deprived of electricity during Quebec's Ice Storm (1998) predicts the epigenetic profile of her child, a new study finds. [More]
Par Pharmaceutical starts shipping generic version of Exforge

Par Pharmaceutical starts shipping generic version of Exforge

Par Pharmaceutical Companies, Inc. today announced that it has begun shipping all four strengths of amlodipine and valsartan tablets, the generic version of Novartis' Exforge. Par received final approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for its Abbreviated New Drug Application for amlodipine and valsartan and was granted 180 days of marketing exclusivity. [More]
TSRI study points way to potential therapies for hereditary spastic paraplegia

TSRI study points way to potential therapies for hereditary spastic paraplegia

Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute have discovered that a gene mutation linked to hereditary spastic paraplegia, a disabling neurological disorder, interferes with the normal breakdown of triglyceride fat molecules in the brain. The TSRI researchers found large droplets of triglycerides within the neurons of mice modeling the disease. [More]
Dr. Rodrigo Guerrero becomes the first winner of Roux Prize

Dr. Rodrigo Guerrero becomes the first winner of Roux Prize

Dr. Rodrigo Guerrero, a Harvard-trained epidemiologist and mayor of Cali, Colombia, is the first winner of the Roux Prize, a new US$100,000 award for turning evidence into health impact and the largest prize of its kind. [More]
Three institutions collaborate to study genetics of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia

Three institutions collaborate to study genetics of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia

Researchers at the University of Michigan School of Public Health and Medical School and collaborators at two other institutions will undertake the largest whole genome sequencing study funded to date, as they seek to better understand bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. [More]
Nondigestible compounds in apples may help prevent obesity-related disorders

Nondigestible compounds in apples may help prevent obesity-related disorders

Scientists at Washington State University have concluded that nondigestible compounds in apples - specifically, Granny Smith apples - may help prevent disorders associated with obesity. The study, thought to be the first to assess these compounds in apple cultivars grown in the Pacific Northwest, appears in October's print edition of the journal Food Chemistry. [More]
State highlights: Calif. health insurers and contraception coverage; Alaska sues Xerox over Medicaid payment systems

State highlights: Calif. health insurers and contraception coverage; Alaska sues Xerox over Medicaid payment systems

Health insurance policies in California will have to cover all federally approved contraceptives for women by 2016 without charging co-payments under legislation signed this week by Gov. Jerry Brown, countering trends in other states and the U.S. Supreme Court. The bill, SB1053 by Sen. Holly Mitchell, D-Los Angeles, expands state laws that required coverage for most birth-control drugs and devices approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The new law mandates coverage for all FDA-approved contraception, prohibits co-payments and includes managed-care Medi-Cal plans, which are not expressly covered by current laws (Egelko, 9/27). [More]
Antibiotic exposure in infancy linked to childhood obesity

Antibiotic exposure in infancy linked to childhood obesity

Repeated exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics in the first two years of life is associated with early childhood obesity, say researchers from The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia in a retrospective study based on data from electronic health records from the extensive CHOP Care Network. [More]
Increasing prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea threatens public health and safety

Increasing prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea threatens public health and safety

Public health and safety are threatened by the increasing prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea, which now afflicts at least 25 million adults in the U.S., according to the National Healthy Sleep Awareness Project. Several new studies highlight the destructive nature of obstructive sleep apnea, a chronic disease that increases the risk of high blood pressure, heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, stroke and depression. [More]
EnteroMedics' CE Mark for Maestro System expanded to include management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus

EnteroMedics' CE Mark for Maestro System expanded to include management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus

EnteroMedics Inc., the developer of medical devices using neuroblocking technology to treat obesity, metabolic diseases and other gastrointestinal disorders, today announced that its CE Mark for the Maestro Rechargeable (RC) System for obesity was expanded to include the management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus through improved glycemic control. [More]
Scientists discover mechanism that resists cancer drugs in estrogen-positive breast cancer

Scientists discover mechanism that resists cancer drugs in estrogen-positive breast cancer

Scientists have discovered a previously unknown mechanism by which estrogen prepares cells to divide, grow and, in the case of estrogen-positive breast cancers, resist cancer drugs. The researchers say the work reveals new targets for breast cancer therapy and will help doctors predict which patients need the most aggressive treatment. [More]
Coffee consumption associated with increase in life years, reduction in healthcare costs

Coffee consumption associated with increase in life years, reduction in healthcare costs

Xcenda, the strategic consulting arm of AmerisourceBergen, one of the largest global pharmaceutical sourcing and distribution service companies, recently conducted the first-ever health economic analysis on coffee consumption. [More]
Cedars-Sinai to participate in a consortium studying motor neuron disorders

Cedars-Sinai to participate in a consortium studying motor neuron disorders

Investigators at the Cedars-Sinai Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute have received a grant from the National Institutes of Health to participate in a consortium taking the study of motor neuron disorders - such as Lou Gehrig's disease and spinal muscular atrophy - to a new, comprehensive perspective. [More]
New findings could pave way for treating autoimmune diseases

New findings could pave way for treating autoimmune diseases

Scientists from A*STAR's Bioprocessing Technology Institute (BTI) have established a clearer relationship between two cells which serve our body's natural defence mechanisms against diseases and infections. [More]
Gastric bypass surgery provides better results than gastric banding

Gastric bypass surgery provides better results than gastric banding

Gastric bypass surgery has better outcomes than gastric banding for long-term weight loss, controlling type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure, and lowering cholesterol levels, according to a new review by UT Southwestern Medical Center surgeons of nearly 30 long-term studies comparing the two types of bariatric procedures. [More]
Dramatic videos of OSA patients increase CPAP usage

Dramatic videos of OSA patients increase CPAP usage

Like more than 20 million other Americans, John Brugger has been diagnosed with sleep apnea. He snored, tossed and turned and struggled to breathe during the night, which often left him not only exhausted the next day but also raised his risk of heart attack, stroke and car accidents. [More]
MicroBiome Therapeutics' NM 505 drug can improve tolerability of metformin

MicroBiome Therapeutics' NM 505 drug can improve tolerability of metformin

MicroBiome TherapeuticsTM LLC, today reported positive topline results from a proof of concept study testing whether its investigational drug, NM 505, can improve the tolerability of metformin, the first-line therapy for Type 2 diabetes worldwide. [More]