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Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for growth and energy. Most of the food people eat is broken down into glucose, the form of sugar in the blood. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body.

After digestion, glucose passes into the bloodstream, where it is used by cells for growth and energy. For glucose to get into cells, insulin must be present. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, a large gland behind the stomach.

When people eat, the pancreas automatically produces the right amount of insulin to move glucose from blood into the cells. In people with diabetes, however, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin, or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced. Glucose builds up in the blood, overflows into the urine, and passes out of the body in the urine. Thus, the body loses its main source of fuel even though the blood contains large amounts of glucose.
Dementia decline heralds hope of reduced burden

Dementia decline heralds hope of reduced burden

Analysis of participants in the Framingham Heart Study has shown a decline in dementia over a period of 3 decades. [More]
MGH study reveals effects of obesity on pancreatic and breast cancer

MGH study reveals effects of obesity on pancreatic and breast cancer

Massachusetts General Hospital investigators may have uncovered a novel mechanism behind the ability of obesity to promote cancer progression. In their report published online in the journal Clinical Cancer Research, the research team describes finding an association between obesity and an overabundance of a factor called PlGF (placental growth factor) and that PlGF's binding to its receptor VEGFR-1, which is expressed on immune cells within tumors, promotes tumor progression. [More]
Transition from milk-based diet to family food impacts Infants’ gut bacteria

Transition from milk-based diet to family food impacts Infants’ gut bacteria

It is the transition to eating the family's food and not the weight of the mother that has the greatest impact on the composition of gut bacteria in nine-month-old children. [More]
Atypical heart attack symptoms lead to delayed treatment, increased injury in women

Atypical heart attack symptoms lead to delayed treatment, increased injury in women

When having a heart attack, most people will experience some kind of chest pain or pressure that worsens. Pain and pressure, along with sweating, shortness of breath and pain that migrates into the arms or neck are the typical heart attack symptoms. [More]
Animal study shows link between oxygen-sensing neurons and fat-burning circuit

Animal study shows link between oxygen-sensing neurons and fat-burning circuit

A new study in animal models, led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI), is the first to show that oxygen sensing in the brain has a role in metabolism and sensing an organism's internal state. [More]
People who feel older may end up in hospital as they age

People who feel older may end up in hospital as they age

People who feel older than their peers are more likely to be hospitalized as they age, regardless of their actual age or other demographic factors, according to research published by the American Psychological Association. [More]
Study identifies FGF21 protein as potential therapeutic agent for cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes

Study identifies FGF21 protein as potential therapeutic agent for cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes

New research on the blood lipid-lowering protein FGF21 shows how it redistributes fatty acids by two distinct mechanisms. The discovery could lead to improved pharmaceutical treatment for type 2 diabetes and other obesity-related diseases. [More]
Unlocking intrinsically disordered proteins: an interview with Peter Wright

Unlocking intrinsically disordered proteins: an interview with Peter Wright

I'm a professor in the Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology at The Scripps Research Institute. I have been performing NMR research on proteins for nearly 40 years. [More]
Review of EAS cases among patients with psychiatric conditions in the Netherlands

Review of EAS cases among patients with psychiatric conditions in the Netherlands

A review of euthanasia or assisted suicide (EAS) cases among patients with psychiatric disorders in the Netherlands found that most had chronic, severe conditions, with histories of attempted suicides and hospitalizations, and were described as socially isolated or lonely, according to an article published online by JAMA Psychiatry. [More]
Vanderbilt physicians examine risk factors for cardiovascular disease in prostate cancer survivors

Vanderbilt physicians examine risk factors for cardiovascular disease in prostate cancer survivors

The 3 million prostate cancer survivors in the United States are likely to die from something other than cancer, thanks to early detection, effective treatment and the disease's slow progression. [More]
Researchers identify genetic mutations that lower complications associated with diabetes

Researchers identify genetic mutations that lower complications associated with diabetes

The most significant complications of diabetes include diabetic retinal disease, or retinopathy, and diabetic kidney disease, or nephropathy. Both involve damaged capillaries. [More]
Researchers use hydrogel to prevent stem cells and human embryos from differentiating

Researchers use hydrogel to prevent stem cells and human embryos from differentiating

Unlike normal cells, stem cells are pluripotent -- they can become any cell type, which makes them powerful potential treatments for diseases such as diabetes, leukemia and age-related blindness. However, maintaining this versatility until the time is right is a major challenge. [More]
New technique could help detect harmful PAMP molecules in certain processed foods

New technique could help detect harmful PAMP molecules in certain processed foods

Our favourite foods could be made healthier thanks to a new technique developed by the University of Leicester which has identified harmful bacterial molecules in certain processed foods such as burgers and ready meals. [More]
New Research Advisory Committee formed to support people with type 1 diabetes

New Research Advisory Committee formed to support people with type 1 diabetes

JDRF, the leading global organization funding type 1 diabetes (T1D) research, announced today the formation of a new external Research Advisory Committee (RAC) comprised of individuals internationally renowned for their expertise in research as well as the care and treatment of those with T1D. [More]
Study sheds light on role of red raspberries in metabolically-based chronic diseases

Study sheds light on role of red raspberries in metabolically-based chronic diseases

Components in red raspberries may have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and metabolic stabilizing activity, according to a comprehensive review of the available scientific literature published in the January issue of Advances in Nutrition. [More]
Simple change in diet could boost vitamin D levels for people suffering from Type 2 diabetes

Simple change in diet could boost vitamin D levels for people suffering from Type 2 diabetes

A simple change in diet could boost vitamin D levels for millions of Americans suffering from Type 2 diabetes, according to new research from Iowa State University published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. [More]
Barley can help reduce blood sugar levels and diabetes risk

Barley can help reduce blood sugar levels and diabetes risk

A recent study from Lund University in Sweden shows that barley can rapidly improve people's health by reducing blood sugar levels and risk for diabetes. The secret lies in the special mixture of dietary fibres found in barley, which can also help reduce people's appetite and risk for cardiovascular disease. [More]
Low-income families having children with special health care needs at high risk for food insecurity

Low-income families having children with special health care needs at high risk for food insecurity

Low-income families with children who have special health care needs are at high risk for food insecurity, even when they receive Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and participate in public assistance programs, such as Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). [More]
Cancer patients who miss scheduled radiation therapy appointments have worse outcomes

Cancer patients who miss scheduled radiation therapy appointments have worse outcomes

Cancer patients who miss two or more radiation therapy sessions have a worse outcome than fully compliant patients, investigators at Montefiore Einstein Center for Cancer Care and Albert Einstein College of Medicine's NCI-designated Albert Einstein Cancer Center have found. [More]
Simple strategies may help people stave off neurodegenerative condition

Simple strategies may help people stave off neurodegenerative condition

Diet, exercise, a good night's sleep -- all sound recommendations for mitigating one's risk for everything from heart disease to diabetes and, as it turns out, Alzheimer's. [More]
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