Alkaline phosphatase refers to a group of phosphatases (pH optimum approximately 10) found in almost every tissue in the body. Most alkaline phosphatase in normal adult serum is from the liver or biliary tract. Normal alkaline phosphatase levels are age dependant with young children and adolescents having much higher levels than adults. Adult males tend to have higher levels than females, but pregnant females have increased levels due to placental secretion of alkaline phosphatase.
Alkaline phosphatase in serum consists of four structural genotypes: the liver-bone-kidney type, the intestinal type, the placental type and the variant from germ cells. It occurs in osteoblasts, hepatocytes the kidneys, spleen, placenta, prostate, leukocytes and the small intestine.
The liver-bone-kidney type is particularly important. Elevation of alkaline phosphatase levels occurs in diseases such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, malignancy, chemical toxicity, and in bone diseases such as metastatic carcinoma, rickets, Paget’s disease, and osteomalacia. Moderate increase in serum alkaline phosphatase levels have been observed in Hodgkin’s disease, congestive heart failure, ulcerative colitis, regional enteritis, and intra-abdominal bacterial infections. Alkaline phosphatase levels are normally elevated during periods of active bone growth, for example, in young children and adolescents.
Vitro ALP reagent is intended for the in vitro quantitative determination of alkaline phosphatase in serum and plasma on both automated and manual systems.