Adenine is one of the four bases in DNA that make up the letters ATGC, adenine is the "A". The others are guanine, cytosine, and thymine. Adenine always pairs with thymine.
Metabolic changes in cells can occur at the earliest stages of disease. In most cases, knowledge of those signals is limited, since we usually detect disease only after it has done significant damage. Now, a team led by engineers at Tufts University School of Engineering has opened a window into the cell by developing an optical tool that can read metabolism at subcellular resolution, without having to perturb cells with contrast agents, or destroy them to conduct assays.
The skin protects the body from harm and is also covered with billions of bacteria which are called commensal bacteria that form the microbiota of the skin. These are friendly bacteria that stay on the skin surface without causing harm.
For almost a hundred years, geneticists have believed that the more a cell divides the more mutations it acquires. However, research by scientists at the Institut Pasteur shows that quiescent cells, which do not divide, also acquire a particular type of mutation - deletions (mutations through loss of nucleobases).
Researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital have discovered a new cellular and molecular pathway that regulates CD4+ T cell response--a finding that may lead to new ways to treat diseases that result from alterations in these cells.
Research has uncovered how glial cells could modulate the activity of nerve cells. The study suggests that glial cells modulate neurotransmitter release by increasing the acidity of the immediate extracellular environment.
Researchers from Kanazawa University and the National Center for Global Health and Medicine in Tokyo report, in Nature Communications, a new mechanism for regulating glucose uptake by the liver which has implications for type 2 diabetes and its treatment.
Researchers at The Ohio University have uncovered the mechanism by which thymine and guanine, the most commonly mutated bases in DNA, become damaged.
Abnormalities in glucose uptake by the liver (or hepatic glucose uptake; HGU) cause elevations in blood glucose levels following meals, a state that is known as postprandial hyperglycemia.
Being able to identify microbes in real time aboard the International Space Station, without having to send them back to Earth for identification first, would be revolutionary for the world of microbiology and space exploration.
A team of investigators from McLean Hospital and Harvard Medical School, led by Kai C. Sonntag, MD, PhD, and Bruce M. Cohen, MD, PhD, has found a connection between disrupted energy production and the development of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). The findings appear in the current issue of Scientific Reports.
DNA editing just got a sharp, new pencil. Researchers have built an enzyme that can perform a previously impossible DNA swap, directly changing the DNA base pair from an A•T to a G•C.
Two different studies have shown that CRISPR - a gene editing tool, could be the next big thing in manipulating and modifying the DNA to suit the needs.
With advances in genomics, scientists are discovering additional components of the DNA alphabet in animals. Do these unusual chemical modifications of DNA have a special meaning, or are they just signs that cellular machines are making mistakes?
Benzo[a]pyrene is a potent carcinogen and mutagen present in cigarette smoke, automotive exhaust, burnt wood fumes, barbecued and smoked meat etc.
While people protect their eyes from the sun's radiation during a solar eclipse, NASA's Human Research Program is working to protect the whole human body from radiation in space. Space radiation is dangerous and one of the primary health risks for astronauts.
Supplementing the diet with vitamin B3 during pregnancy may treat the molecular deficiencies in women that can lead to birth defects, according to a landmark study in Australia. Over the last 12 years, developmental geneticist Sally Dunwoodie (Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, Sydney) and team have been studying the genes that influence fetal heart and bone development.
Scientists have known for decades that smoking cigarettes causes DNA damage, which leads to lung cancer. Now, for the first time, UNC School of Medicine scientists created a method for effectively mapping that DNA damage at high resolution across the genome.
Antibiotics harm bacteria and stress them. Trimethoprim (TMP), an antibiotic, inhibits the growth of the bacterium Escherichia coli and induces a stress response.
In many neurodegenerative conditions — Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and peripheral neuropathy among them — an early defect is the loss of axons, the wiring of the nervous system.
Researchers from the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine and the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine have shown that a neuroprotective compound tested in rats provides two-pronged protection for brain cells during stroke and improves physical and cognitive outcomes in the treated animals.