Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax most commonly occurs in wild and domestic lower vertebrates (cattle, sheep, goats, camels, antelopes, and other herbivores), but it can also occur in humans when they are exposed to infected animals or tissue from infected animals.
Anthrax is most common in agricultural regions where it occurs in animals. These include South and Central America, Southern and Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, and the Middle East. When anthrax affects humans, it is usually due to an occupational exposure to infected animals or their products. Workers who are exposed to dead animals and animal products from other countries where anthrax is more common may become infected with B. anthracis (industrial anthrax). Anthrax outbreaks occur in the United States on an annual basis in livestock and wild game animals such as deer.
Anthrax infection can occur in three forms: cutaneous (skin), inhalation, and gastrointestinal. B. anthracis spores can live in the soil for many years, and humans can become infected with anthrax by handling products from infected animals or by inhaling anthrax spores from contaminated animal products. Anthrax can also be spread by eating undercooked meat from infected animals. It is rare to find infected animals in the United States.
Engineering researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have developed a new method to kill deadly pathogenic bacteria, including listeria, in food handling and packaging. This innovation represents an alternative to the use of antibiotics or chemical decontamination in food supply systems.
Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories are developing a medical instrument that will be able to quickly detect a suite of biothreat agents, including anthrax, ricin, botulinum, shiga and SEB toxin.
Soligenix, Inc., a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company, announced today that the Food and Drug Administration has completed its review and cleared the Investigational New Drug application for SGX942 for the treatment of oral mucositis resulting from radiation and/or chemotherapy treatment in head and neck cancer patients.
The epicentre of the HIV pandemic is in sub-Saharan Africa, though prevalence of infection varies dramatically between countries for reasons not completely understood.
Washington University engineering researchers have created a new type of air-cleaning technology that could better protect human lungs from allergens, airborne viruses and ultrafine particles in the air.
PaxVax, Inc., which develops and commercializes innovative vaccines against infectious diseases in a socially responsible manner, today announced positive results in a Phase 1 clinical trial for its oral, replicating adenovirus serotype 4 (Ad4) vector vaccine for H5N1 (avian flu).
Emergent BioSolutions Inc. today announced the initiation of a Phase 2 clinical trial for NuThrax (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed with CPG 7909 Adjuvant), also known as AV7909, with the dosing of the first subject.
US researchers suggest that one reason patients request antibiotics for respiratory infections is that they greatly underestimate how long it usually takes for acute cough illness to resolve.
Soligenix, Inc., a development stage biopharmaceutical company, announced today that the Office of Orphan Products Development of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted orphan drug designation to OrbeShield (oral beclomethasone 17,21-dipropionate or oral BDP) for the prevention of death following a potentially lethal dose of total body irradiation during or after a radiation disaster.
The report by Trust for America's Health and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation found that although some states have improved their preparedness, gaps persist largely because of state budget cuts.
The US Food and Drug Administration have approved the monoclonal antibody raxibacumab for treatment of inhalational anthrax, caused by breathing in spores of Bacillus anthracis.
GlaxoSmithKline plc announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved raxibacumab for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with inhalational anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis in combination with appropriate antibacterial drugs and for prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax when alternative therapies are not available or are not appropriate.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved raxibacumab injection to treat inhalational anthrax, a form of the infectious disease caused by breathing in the spores of the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Raxibacumab also is approved to prevent inhalational anthrax when alternative therapies are not available or not appropriate.
Scientists from the UK Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) report, in a preliminary study, that they have demonstrated that a single dose of Aradigm Corporation's liposomal ciprofloxacin formulation Lipoquin administered 24 hours after exposure to a lethal dose of the bacterium Yersinia pestis provided full protection in a murine model of pneumonic plague.
PaxVax Inc, which develops and commercializes innovative vaccines against infectious diseases in a socially responsible manner today announced results from a Phase 1 clinical trial of PaxVax's single-dose oral cholera vaccine candidate at the 2012 American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH) Annual Meeting in Atlanta.
Soligenix, Inc., a development stage biopharmaceutical company, announced today that its program for development of SGX203 (oral beclomethasone 17,21-dipropionate or oral BDP) for the induction treatment of mild-to-moderate pediatric Crohn's disease has received "Fast Track" designation from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Emergent BioSolutions announced today that, after completion of an inter-agency In Process Review, the Biomedical Advanced Research Development Authority (BARDA) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has exercised a contract option to further advance the development of PreviThrax (Recombinant Protective Antigen Anthrax Vaccine, Purified), the company's novel rPA anthrax vaccine candidate.
Soligenix, Inc., a development stage biopharmaceutical company, announced today that the National Cancer Institute has awarded Soligenix a Small Business Innovation Research grant to support the conduct of a Phase 2 clinical trial designed to evaluate orBec (oral beclomethasone 17,21-dipropionate or BDP) as a treatment for the gastrointestinal manifestation of chronic Graft-versus-Host disease.
Soligenix, Inc., a development stage biopharmaceutical company, announced today the results of a Phase 1B clinical trial of an aluminum hydroxide (Alum) adjuvanted formulation of RiVax, designed to improve the immunogenicity of the vaccine.
The idea that disease and infection might be used as weapons is truly dreadful, but there is plenty of evidence showing that biological weapons have been around since ancient times. Bioterrorism, as it is dubbed, is nothing new, and although medicines have made the world a safer place against a myriad of old scourges both natural and manmade, it still remains all too easy today to uncork a nasty cloud of germs.