Humans normally have 46 chromosomes in each cell, divided into 23 pairs. Two copies of chromosome 12, one copy inherited from each parent, form one of the pairs. Chromosome 12 spans about 132 million DNA building blocks (base pairs) and represents between 4 percent and 4.5 percent of the total DNA in cells.
Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. Chromosome 12 likely contains between 1,200 and 1,400 genes.
Genes on chromosome 12 are among the estimated 20,000 to 25,000 total genes in the human genome.
A new study has detailed how some of the genes in the human genome inherited from Neanderthals appear to confer a protective effect against severe COVID-19.
SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, impacts people in different ways after infection. Some experience only mild or no symptoms at all while others become sick enough to require hospitalization and may develop respiratory failure and die.
Researchers in Germany have conducted a study showing that between 2 and 8% of people in Eurasia carry a genetic variant inherited from Neanderthals that significantly increases the risk of becoming critically ill with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Results of a genome-wide association study on 2,244 critically-ill patients due to coronavirus disease (COVID-19) from 208 intensive care units across the United Kingdom revealed significant host-specific genetic determinants that can predispose people to the severe form of the disease. The report is currently available on the medRxiv preprint server.
Scientists at the Sloan Kettering Institute have found that increased activity of a normal metabolic enzyme can lead to cancer. The enzyme, SHMT2, is a driver of a large portion of B cell lymphomas and could be a potential drug target.
Knowing what cancer will do next could lessen the likelihood of it becoming resistant to treatment. A new Canadian study investigates how cancer adapts its metabolism to potentially overcome therapies still in development.
By combing through the entire genetic sequences of a person with a lung scarring disease and 13 of the person’s relatives, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers say they have found a coding error in a single gene that is likely responsible for a rare form of the disease and the abnormally short protective DNA caps on chromosomes long associated with it.
In the first continent-wide genomic study of malaria parasites in Africa, scientists have uncovered the genetic features of Plasmodium falciparum parasites that inhabit different regions of the continent, including the genetic factors that confer resistance to anti-malarial drugs.
Researchers at the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute, with the participation of collaborators from the Baylor College of Medicine and the University Institute of Oncology of Asturias, publish today in Cancer Research a study where they relate the high number of copies of a chromosomal region with the appearance of resistance to a chemotherapeutic drug.
The morning coffee or tea can perk one up for the day, however, for some of us these beverages are too bitter. Researchers have now found that the bitter taste experienced is all down to genes. The new study titled, “Understanding the role of bitter taste perception in coffee, tea and alcohol consumption through Mendelian randomization,” was published in the latest issue of the journal Nature Scientific Reports.
Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University and the FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology in Italy have uncovered a previously unknown function of the DDX11 helicase enzyme.
It's a common occurrence in elderly people: Blood cells carrying mutated DNA explosively increase in number, resulting in genetic "mosaicism": the presence of a population of cells that carries an altered genome.
How are chromosomes arranged in the cell nucleus? Is it possible that they communicate with one another by "touching" each other?
A large-scale, international whole-genome analysis has now revealed for the first time that anorexia nervosa is associated with genetic anomalies on chromosome 12.
A landmark study led by UNC School of Medicine researchers has identified the first genetic locus for anorexia nervosa and has revealed that there may also be metabolic underpinnings to this potentially deadly illness.
Researchers led by scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute say they have identified unique genomic changes that may be integral to testicular cancer development and explain why the great majority are highly curable with chemotherapy - unlike most solid tumors.
Individuals with this altered gene have hereditary hypertension (high blood pressure) and at the same time a skeletal malformation called brachydactyly type E, which is characterized by unusually short fingers and toes. The effect on blood pressure is so serious that -- if left untreated -- it most often leads to death before age fifty.
An Indiana University cancer researcher and her colleagues have identified genetic markers that may help determine who benefits from regular use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for lowering one's risk of developing colorectal cancer.
What keeps leukemia cells alive almost forever, able to continue dividing endlessly and aggressively? New research at the Weizmann Institute suggests that, in around a quarter of all leukemias, the cancer cells rely on an internal "balance of terror" to keep going.
The patients have single short fingers (metacarpals) and toes (metatarsals) and can be restricted in growth due to a shortened skeleton. This hereditary disease is called brachydactyly type E (Greek for short fingers).