Humans normally have 46 chromosomes in each cell, divided into 23 pairs. Two copies of chromosome 19, one copy inherited from each parent, form one of the pairs. Chromosome 19 spans about 64 million base pairs (the building blocks of DNA) and represents more than 2 percent of the total DNA in cells.
Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. Chromosome 19 likely contains between 1,300 and 1,700 genes.
Genes on chromosome 19 are among the estimated 20,000 to 25,000 total genes in the human genome.
Abnormal formation and growth of the placenta is considered an underlying cause of various pregnancy complications such as miscarriages, preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction.
Obesity is among the most common complex diseases in the United States and has been a stubborn public health challenge for decades. Its causes are wide ranging, but genetic heritability is increasingly understood to be an influential factor in determining a person's risk for the disease.
The heart of modern therapy is increasingly personalized and targeted at specific cellular or genetic deficits. This requires gene therapy, in many cases. A new study, published on 19 September 2019 in the journal Nature, describes an improved way to produce purified gene carrier viruses called AAVs cheaply and quickly, from the culture medium.
A new study of 38,537 persons of European ancestry suggests that a rare variation of a gene called APOE may be protective and prolong life, in sharp contrast to a more widely studied APOE variant that increases risk of death.
New findings show how a genetically aberrant, fused protein promotes a rare form of liver cancer in adolescents and young adults. The researchers also saw that a certain mix of drugs could target the fused protein and the enzymes that it recruits.
Some scientists call it the "final frontier" of our DNA -- even though it lies at the center of every X-shaped chromosome in nearly every one of our cells.
The notorious genetic marker of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia, ApoE4, may not be a lone wolf.
In a world-first discovery, scientists at Sydney’s Westmead Institute for Medical Research have identified a protein that causes liver fibrosis (scarring), paving the way for new treatments for liver disease to be developed.
Scientists are reporting a test which can predict which patients are most at risk from aggressive prostate cancer, and whether they suffer an increased chance of treatment failure.
Northwestern Medicine scientists have discovered the genetic driver of a rare and lethal childhood leukemia and identified a targeted molecular therapy that halts the proliferation of leukemic cells.
A family of small RNA molecules affects the development of cells that give rise to the placenta - an organ that transfers oxygen and nutrients from mother to fetus -- in ways that could contribute to a serious pregnancy complication, UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers report.
Oxford University researchers are closer to solving a decade-old mystery after discovering that a set of genes they are studying play a key role in early human development.
In the largest study of DNA samples from service members with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), researchers have identified genetic mutations that may be associated with an increased risk factor for PTSD.
In a massive analysis of DNA samples from more than 13,000 U.S. soldiers, scientists have identified two statistically significant genetic variants that may be associated with an increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), an often serious mental illness linked to earlier exposure to a traumatic event, such as combat and an act of violence.
Researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have identified a biomarker living next door to the KLK3 gene that can predict which GS7 prostate cancer patients will have a more aggressive form of cancer.
A study of older adults at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease shows that moderate physical activity may protect brain health and stave off shrinkage of the hippocampus- the brain region responsible for memory and spatial orientation that is attacked first in Alzheimer's disease.
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) has a previously unrecognized tactic to outwit antiviral responses and sustain a long-term infection. It also turns out that some people are genetically equipped with a strong countermeasure to the virus' attempt to weaken the attack on it.
Embryonal tumours with multilayered rosettes (ETMR) are rare, deadly brain tumours that affect mainly children below the age of 4 years. There are 300 cases reported but probably there are many more as this tumour is often misdiagnosed.
National Paracycling Champion Tom Staniford has an extremely rare condition which, until now, has puzzled his doctors. He is unable to store fat under his skin - yet has type 2 diabetes - and suffered hearing loss as a child. Now, thanks to advances in genome sequencing, an international research team led by the University of Exeter Medical School has identified Tom's condition and pinpointed the single genetic mutation that causes it.
Scientists at deCODE Genetics and academic collaborators from Iceland, Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands and the USA report the discovery of low frequency variants in the human genome that associate with risk of gout, a common inflammatory arthritis, and serum uric acid levels.