Humans normally have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in each cell. Two copies of chromosome 22, one copy inherited from each parent, form one of the pairs. Chromosome 22 is the second smallest human chromosome, spanning about 50 million DNA building blocks (base pairs) and representing between 1.5 percent and 2 percent of the total DNA in cells.
In 1999, researchers working on the Human Genome Project announced they had determined the sequence of base pairs that make up this chromosome. Chromosome 22 was the first human chromosome to be fully sequenced.
Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. Chromosome 22 likely contains between 500 and 800 genes.
Genes on chromosome 22 are among the estimated 20,000 to 25,000 total genes in the human genome.
The National Institutes of Health has awarded Bernice Morrow, Ph.D., at Albert Einstein College of Medicine and collaborators at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia a five-year, $7.5 million grant to study the genetics of congenital heart abnormalities.
A new mouse model of a genetically-linked type of autism reveals more about the role of genes in the disorder and the underlying brain changes associated with autism's social and learning problems.
Scientists have identified a gene that appears to play a significant role in raising a person's risk of having more severe subtypes of autism that co-occur with other genetic diseases, such as the chromosomal disorder 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.
Low birth weight and preterm birth appear to increase the risk of schizophrenia among individuals with a genetic condition called the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, a new study from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) shows.
A growth hormone can significantly improve the social impairment associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in patients with a related genetic syndrome, according to a pilot study conducted at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published yesterday on Pub Med, a public database of biomedical topics maintained by the National Institutes of Health (study originally published in the December 12 issue of the journal Molecular Autism).
A University of Colorado Cancer Center study published in the journal PLoS One finds alterations in expression of genes PIK3R3 and PTEN, more commonly observed in adult tumors, in the rare, young-adult bone cancer Ewing Sarcoma, potentially offering ways to improve therapy.
The genetic abnormality that drives the bone cancer Ewing sarcoma operates through two distinct processes - both activating genes that stimulate tumor growth and suppressing those that should keep cancer from developing. These findings by Massachusetts General Hospital investigators, published in the November issue of Cancer Cell, may lead to new therapies targeting these aberrant mechanisms.
Researchers from the University of Toronto, directed by Drs. Gelareh Zadeh and Boris Krischek, investigated gene expression in normal vestibular nerves and vestibular schwannomas (VSs).
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists have identified problems in a connection between brain structures that may predispose individuals to hearing the "voices" that are a common symptom of schizophrenia. The work appears in the June 6 issue of the journal Science.
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. (NYSE:TEVA) today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved SYNRIBO® (omacetaxine mepesuccinate) for injection, for subcutaneous use, to include home administration, and also approved a related Medication Guide and Instructions for Use.
Researchers have found a major piece of genetic evidence that confirms the role of a group of virus-fighting genes in cancer development.
Schizophrenia has long been known to be highly heritable and is present in approximately 1% of the population. Researchers have been following two paths in their pursuit of identifying schizophrenia risk genes.
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has granted full approval of SYNRIBO (omacetaxine mepesuccinate) for injection. This oncology portfolio product received an accelerated approval in October, 2012 with additional clinical trial data required to fulfill post marketing requirements set forth by the FDA.
Natera, a leading innovator in prenatal genetic testing, today announced the initiation of a distribution partnership with ProPath, a wholly physician-owned provider of pathology services to clinicians and medical facilities in the United States, for its Panorama non-invasive prenatal screening test (NIPT).
Changes to a gene called LZTR1 predispose people to develop a rare disorder where multiple tumors called schwannomas form near nerve pathways, according to a study published today in the journal Nature Genetics and led by researchers from the University of Alabama at Birmingham.
A genetic analysis reported in Nature suggests two mechanisms that could lead to bipolar disorder.
An international team of scientists-including researchers at GENYO, the Centre for Genomics and Oncological Research (Pfizer-University of Granada- Andalusian Regional Government)-has described a molecular mechanism that facilitates the defence of the human genome against "bombarding" by mobile DNA sequences.
Genetics experts from The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) are among the top leaders of a major international collaboration researching why patients with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have an elevated risk of schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses.
Scientists at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) and University Health Network (UHN) have found a new link between early-onset Parkinson's disease and a piece of DNA missing from chromosome 22. The findings help shed new light on the molecular changes that lead to Parkinson's disease.
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) is a cancer of the white blood cells that is most commonly found in adults and in the elderly. Its incidence has been estimated to be 1 to 2 in 100,000 people. CML was the first cancer to be associated with a genetic abnormality, known as the Philadelphia Chromosome, which 95% of all CML patients carry in their cells.