Humans normally have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in each cell. Two copies of chromosome 22, one copy inherited from each parent, form one of the pairs. Chromosome 22 is the second smallest human chromosome, spanning about 50 million DNA building blocks (base pairs) and representing between 1.5 percent and 2 percent of the total DNA in cells.
In 1999, researchers working on the Human Genome Project announced they had determined the sequence of base pairs that make up this chromosome. Chromosome 22 was the first human chromosome to be fully sequenced.
Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. Chromosome 22 likely contains between 500 and 800 genes.
Genes on chromosome 22 are among the estimated 20,000 to 25,000 total genes in the human genome.
Enlarged cerebral ventricles are found in 80% of individuals with schizophrenia, yet the mechanisms that lead to ventricular enlargement are mostly unknown.
What if the key to a better understanding of schizophrenia has been here all along--but researchers haven't had the resources to study it?
A landmark study is calling for at least 50 people in the U.S. with Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome (VCFS)-related psychosis to provide blood samples to create the world’s largest VCFS biobank to date of tiny spheres of neural tissue called "cerebral organoids."
Although predisposing processes occur earlier, schizophrenia breaks out at young adulthood, suggesting it might involve a pathological transition during late brain development in predisposed individuals.
Using advanced imaging techniques, researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus have mapped a previously uncharted region of the human genome that gives rise to a variety of disease, setting the stage to potentially test for the conditions in the future.
Schizophrenia causes hallucinations and memory or cognition problems inter alia. This psychiatric illness affects 0.5% of the general population, and it may be related to genetic abnormalities of chromosome 22, known as 22q11 deletion syndrome.
On the occasion of World NF2 Awareness Day, the Children's Tumor Foundation has announced the establishment of a significant research initiative dedicated to finding effective treatments for NF2, along with a substantial investment of $2.3 million in this bold new effort.
Under-connectivity, or too few connections in the brain, is the underlying cause of brain disorders like autism and schizophrenia, according to a recent study from investigators at the George Washington University Institute for Neuroscience.
University of Miami researchers have discovered a clue in the humble zebrafish's digestive tract that, one day, could help people on the autism spectrum alleviate one of the most common yet least studied symptoms of their disorder: gastrointestinal distress.
A Massachusetts General Hospital research team has used epigenome editing tools to investigate how the genetic abnormality that drives Ewing sarcoma - the second most common bone cancer in children and young adults - unleashes tumor growth.
Scientists from Trinity College Dublin and the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland have discovered that abnormalities of blood vessels in the brain may play a major role in the development of schizophrenia, a debilitating condition that affects around 1% of people in Ireland.
The 22q11.2 region of human chromosome 22 is a hotspot for a variety of birth defects. Scientists learned about this region because it is deleted in about 1 in 4,000 births, causing the loss or duplication of up to 40 genes.
A UCLA study characterizes, for the first time, brain differences between people with a specific genetic risk for schizophrenia and those at risk for autism, and the findings could help explain the biological underpinnings of these neuropsychiatric disorders.
Scientists identify two signaling proteins in cancer cells that make them resistant to chemotherapy, and show that blocking the proteins along with chemotherapy eliminate human leukemia in mouse models.
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists have identified a small RNA (microRNA) that may be essential to restoring normal function in a brain circuit associated with the "voices" and other hallucinations of schizophrenia.
The National Institutes of Health has awarded Bernice Morrow, Ph.D., at Albert Einstein College of Medicine and collaborators at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia a five-year, $7.5 million grant to study the genetics of congenital heart abnormalities.
A new mouse model of a genetically-linked type of autism reveals more about the role of genes in the disorder and the underlying brain changes associated with autism's social and learning problems.
Scientists have identified a gene that appears to play a significant role in raising a person's risk of having more severe subtypes of autism that co-occur with other genetic diseases, such as the chromosomal disorder 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.
Low birth weight and preterm birth appear to increase the risk of schizophrenia among individuals with a genetic condition called the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, a new study from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) shows.
A growth hormone can significantly improve the social impairment associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in patients with a related genetic syndrome, according to a pilot study conducted at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published yesterday on Pub Med, a public database of biomedical topics maintained by the National Institutes of Health (study originally published in the December 12 issue of the journal Molecular Autism).