Humans normally have 46 chromosomes in each cell, divided into 23 pairs. Two copies of chromosome 8, one copy inherited from each parent, form one of the pairs. Chromosome 8 spans about 146 million DNA building blocks (base pairs) and represents between 4.5 percent and 5 percent of the total DNA in cells.
Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. Chromosome 8 likely contains between 700 and 1,100 genes.
Genes on chromosome 8 are among the estimated 20,000 to 25,000 total genes in the human genome.
The full assembly of human chromosome 8 is reported this week in Nature. While on the outside this chromosome looks typical, being neither short nor long or distinctive, its DNA content and arrangement are of interest in primate and human evolution, in several immune and developmental disorders, and in chromosome sequencing structure and function generally.
A chromatin-regulating enzyme has been shown by in-depth interdisciplinary investigations to be a key driver of a common type of lung cancer. Drugs that target the enzyme could improve treatment and survival rates for this particular cancer.
DNA methylation performs an essential function in mammalian ontogeny. It is also known that abnormalities in this process cause the development of cancers such as leukemia.
For the first time, scientists at the Morgridge Institute for Research have generated near atomic resolution images of a major viral protein complex responsible for replicating the RNA genome of a member of the positive-strand RNA viruses, the large class of viruses that includes coronaviruses and many other pathogens.
A new proof-of-concept study reports evidence that a new testing method has the potential to rapidly identify radiation sickness based on biomarkers measured through a single drop of blood.
Virginia Tech researchers have proven that a single gene can convert female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes into fertile male mosquitoes and identified a gene needed for male mosquito flight.
Researchers at the UiO and OUS have discovered how destructive changes occur in our genome. This could lead to cancer. Their results have been published in the journal Nature Cell Biology.
A team from the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute and the University of Barcelona, in collaboration with a researcher from the Mayo Clinic and the University of Minnesota, have described that lysosomes and autophagy processes are active during mitosis and are necessary for a correct cell division.
Researchers have found that a small fragment of the genetic code that has been inherited by modern humans from Neanderthals could carry the secret of why some people succumb to a severe form of COVID-19 requiring hospitalization, while others recover.
UT Southwestern researchers have identified vast webs of small snippets of the genome that interact with each other and with genes to promote prostate cancer.
Gene coding regions constitute 2% of the human genome. St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists have developed a computational tool to identify alterations that drive tumor formation in the remaining 98% of the genome.
An international research collaboration, including Professor IIJIMA Kazumoto et al. (of the Department of Pediatrics, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine) has revealed that NPHS1 is a disease-susceptibility gene for steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome in children.
Thousands of lives lost to bladder cancers each year could be saved thanks to a new scanner that uses photonics to illuminate parts of the tissue that are currently impossible to visualize.
USC researchers peering deep inside a living cell have discovered something surprising: Its system for preventing genetic damage linked to diseases can fail so badly that the cell would be better off without it.
Cellular waste disposal, where autophagy and lysosomes interact, performs elementary functions, such as degrading damaged protein molecules, which impair cellular function, and reintroducing the resulting building blocks such as amino acids into the metabolic system.
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba have identified a novel protein complex that regulates Aurora B localization to ensure that chromosomes are correctly separated during cell division
Scientists at the Sloan Kettering Institute have found that increased activity of a normal metabolic enzyme can lead to cancer. The enzyme, SHMT2, is a driver of a large portion of B cell lymphomas and could be a potential drug target.
The dynamics of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression in the kidney could have implications for the infectivity and pathogenicity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), say researchers.
The first study to elucidate the dynamics of membrane cholesterol transport in erythrocytes has been successfully concluded using holotomography microscopy.
A new study published on the preprint server medRxiv in June 2020 shows that variants in the ACE2 gene which encodes the enzyme receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19 disease, are linked to the risk of severe disease.