Humans normally have 46 chromosomes in each cell, divided into 23 pairs. Two copies of chromosome 8, one copy inherited from each parent, form one of the pairs. Chromosome 8 spans about 146 million DNA building blocks (base pairs) and represents between 4.5 percent and 5 percent of the total DNA in cells.
Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. Chromosome 8 likely contains between 700 and 1,100 genes.
Genes on chromosome 8 are among the estimated 20,000 to 25,000 total genes in the human genome.
Cancer cells are notorious for their genetic disarray. A tumor cell can contain an abundance of DNA mutations and most have the wrong number of chromosomes.
Researchers from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre, Madrid, and the Andalusian Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine Centre, Seville, published today a paper in Nature Communications that shows that DNA topological problems may cause endogenous DNA breaks that have a causal relationship with cancer.
Obesity is among the most common complex diseases in the United States and has been a stubborn public health challenge for decades. Its causes are wide ranging, but genetic heritability is increasingly understood to be an influential factor in determining a person's risk for the disease.
Huntington's disease is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder caused by a gene of chromosome 4 that affects a very important area of the brain, the striatum. People are born with the defective gene but symptoms do not appear until the age of 30 or 40.
The loss of one copy of the miR15a/miR16-1 gene cluster promoted initiation and progression of multiple myeloma in mice.
The model will permit to accelerate and reduce the price of the research, which is studying the mechanisms and the possible pharmacological targets for the neuronal alterations of this disease.
A new technique can label diverse molecules and amplify the signal to help researchers spot those that are especially rare. Called SABER (signal amplification by exchange reaction), Peng Yin's lab at Harvard's Wyss Institute first introduced this method last year and since have found ways to apply it to proteins, DNA and RNA.
A new study to be presented at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in February 2020 will report on the generation of the world’s first artificially created bacterial genome using a digital design algorithm along with the synthesis of DNA building blocks on a large scale. This genome takes form by chemical rather than template-based synthesis. The research is published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia and autism, likely result from complex interactions that modify the effects of individual genes.
Enlarged cerebral ventricles are found in 80% of individuals with schizophrenia, yet the mechanisms that lead to ventricular enlargement are mostly unknown.
A new gene-editing technique based on CRISPR was used to successfully avoid the development of a liver disease that can be caused by hundreds of mutations, as well as to ease the symptoms in mice. This proof-of-concept study was published online in the journal Science Advances in February 2020.
What if the key to a better understanding of schizophrenia has been here all along--but researchers haven't had the resources to study it?
Scientists have made a major breakthrough in understanding how the parasite that causes malaria is able to multiply at such an alarming rate, which could be a vital clue in discovering how it has evolved, and how it can be stopped.
Chromosomal breaks are the most harmful damage for cells. If they are not repaired, they block the duplication and segregation of chromosomes, stop the growth cycle and cause cell death. These breaks appear frequently in tumor cells and are produced spontaneously during the replication of genetic material.
Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles, have reported, in the journal Cell Reports, the mechanism of how the very early precursor or stem cells which eventually give rise to the germ cells, eggs and sperm, are formed over the course of development. This could help create eggs and sperms under laboratory conditions to help infertile people who don’t have sperms, or eggs, for instance.
Age related macular degeneration or AMD leads to loss of vision in around 1.5 million people in the United Kingdom and millions of others around the world. In a new study researchers have discovered a new protein that could explain the causation and thus provide clues to its early diagnosis and effective treatment. The study was published in the latest issue of the journal Nature Communications.
Researchers at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg and Institut Curie in Paris have shown that the protein SPEN plays a crucial role in the process of X-chromosome inactivation, whereby female mammalian embryos silence gene expression on one of their two X chromosomes.
From plastics to pesticides, it seems like every week delivers fresh news about the dangers of endocrine disruptors--chemicals in the environment that alter the body's hormones and can lead to reproductive, developmental, neurologic and immune problems and cancer.
Researchers at Harvard Medical School and EMBL-EBI have carried out the largest analysis across cancer types of the newly discovered mutational phenomenon chromothripsis.
Researchers at EMBL's European Bioinformatics Institute and the Francis Crick Institute have analyzed the whole genomes of over 2600 tumors from 38 different cancer types to determine the chronology of genomic changes during cancer development.