Cohesin is the protein responsible for binding the sister chromatids during mitosis after S phase. At metaphase, most cohesin is removed, except for some at the centromere. At Anaphase, securin, an inhibitory subunit of separase, is hydrolyzed.
New research is advancing understanding of certain cancers and complex congenital disorders by illuminating how BRD4, a protein that scientists have studied for years, directs the spatial organization of DNA within the nucleus of the cell, a function critical for stem cell differentiation into muscle cells.
Researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital have uncovered new clues that add to the growing understanding of how female mammals, including humans, "silence" one X chromosome.
Researchers have revealed a new molecular mechanism by which bacteria adhere to cellulose fibers in the human gut. Thanks to two different binding modes, they can withstand the shear forces in the body.
Ana Losada, from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), is the scientist who identified cohesin in vertebrates, a protein that is essential in cell division.
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba have identified a novel protein complex that regulates Aurora B localization to ensure that chromosomes are correctly separated during cell division
Scientists at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research have shown that a dysfunctional placenta can play a previously unrecognized role during the earliest stages of development in mouse models of Cornelia de Lange syndrome.
Chromosomal breaks are the most harmful damage for cells. If they are not repaired, they block the duplication and segregation of chromosomes, stop the growth cycle and cause cell death. These breaks appear frequently in tumor cells and are produced spontaneously during the replication of genetic material.
Researchers have discovered key mechanisms and structural details of a fundamental biological process-;how a cell nucleus and its chromosomal material reorganizes itself after cell division
Diversity is good, especially when it comes to antibodies. It's long been known that a gene assembly process called V(D)J recombination allows our immune system to mix and match bits of genetic code, generating new antibodies to conquer newly encountered threats.
The most common form of childhood cancer is acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Researchers at Lund University in Sweden, in cooperation with Karolinska Institutet, SciLifeLab and the University of Cambridge, have now carried out the most extensive analysis to date of ALL at the protein level, by studying the activity in over 8 000 genes and proteins.
A large, new study of adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) correlates 80 cancer-related gene mutations with five subtypes of AML, which are defined by the presence of specific chromosomal abnormalities. The findings might help guide mutation testing and treatment decisions in the future.
Research led by Raquel Oliveira, group leader at Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, has elucidated how cells are almost blind to chromosome cohesion defects.
An important element in getting blood stem cells to multiply outside the body is to understand which of the approximately 20,000 genes in the human body control their growth. Now a research team at Lund University in Sweden has studied close to 15,000 of these genes alongside each other.
Researchers working with zebrafish at New Zealand's University of Otago have published a study providing new insights into the causes of the congenital heart defects associated with a rare developmental disorder.
Analyzing a puzzling multisystem disorder in three children, genetic experts have identified a new syndrome, shedding light on key biological processes during human development. The research also provides important information to help caregivers manage the disorder, and may offer clues to eventually treating it.
The Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation, a non-profit organization focused on supporting innovative early career researchers, named 15 new Damon Runyon Fellows at its fall Fellowship Award Committee review. The recipients of this prestigious, four-year award are outstanding postdoctoral scientists conducting basic and translational cancer research in the laboratories of leading senior investigators across the country.
During cell division, chromosomes acquire a characteristic X-shape with the two DNA molecules (sister chromatids) linked at a central "connection region" that contains highly compacted DNA.
Massive sequencing of cancer genomes brings to light new genes every day that could be involved in the process of tumour formation.
Cohesins are protein complexes that join the two copies of each chromosome-called sister chromatids-to ensure that they are shared fairly between the daughter cells during cell division. In this way, each daughter cell receives exactly the same genetic information from the parent cell.
The DNA in human cells is translated into a multitude of proteins required for a cell to function. When, where and how proteins are expressed is determined by regulatory DNA sequences and a group of proteins, known as transcription factors, that bind to these DNA sequences.