Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) is a class-III intermediate filament that is mostly produced in astrocytic glial cells in the central nervous system. Astrocytes have important functions in supporting, guiding, nurturing, and signaling neuronal architecture and activity.

Monomeric GFAP weighs approximately 55 kD and has the capacity to form both homodimers and heterodimers, with the ability to polymerize with other type III proteins or neurofilament proteins (such as NF-L). GFAP plays integral roles in numerous central nervous system processes, including cell communication and the maintenance of the blood-brain barrier.

As a potential biomarker, GFAP has demonstrated associations with various diseases, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, and brain tumors. Decreases in GFAP expression have also been documented in conditions such as Down syndrome, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression.

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