Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax most commonly occurs in wild and domestic lower vertebrates (cattle, sheep, goats, camels, antelopes, and other herbivores), but it can also occur in humans when they are exposed to infected animals or tissue from infected animals.
Anthrax is most common in agricultural regions where it occurs in animals. These include South and Central America, Southern and Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, and the Middle East. When anthrax affects humans, it is usually due to an occupational exposure to infected animals or their products. Workers who are exposed to dead animals and animal products from other countries where anthrax is more common may become infected with B. anthracis (industrial anthrax). Anthrax outbreaks occur in the United States on an annual basis in livestock and wild game animals such as deer.
Anthrax infection can occur in three forms: cutaneous (skin), inhalation, and gastrointestinal. B. anthracis spores can live in the soil for many years, and humans can become infected with anthrax by handling products from infected animals or by inhaling anthrax spores from contaminated animal products. Anthrax can also be spread by eating undercooked meat from infected animals. It is rare to find infected animals in the United States.
Researchers at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, both part of the National Institutes of Health, have identified the cells in two distinct areas of the body that are simultaneously targeted for damage by anthrax toxins, eventually causing illness and sometimes death. Their findings, which appeared online today in Nature, are based on testing in mice.
A new hypothesis concerning a crucial step in the anthrax infection process has been advanced by scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) at Fort Detrick, Md.
If terrorists targeted the United States with an anthrax attack, health care providers and policy makers would need key information - such as knowing the likelihood of an individual becoming infected, how many cases to expect and in what pattern, and how long to give antibiotics - to protect people from the deadly bacteria.
The Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) received another boost today for Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) education with a $20,000 grant from the Arizona Community Foundation (ACF).
Emergent BioSolutions Inc. announced today that it has closed on its acquisition of Bracco Diagnostics Inc.'s Healthcare Protective Products Division. This acquisition, which includes the RSDL (decontamination lotion) product that is cleared for marketing by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for removal or neutralization of chemical warfare agents from the skin, diversifies and broadens Emergent's biodefense franchise into the chemical countermeasure market.
A team led by William Fenical at Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UC San Diego has discovered a new chemical compound from an ocean microbe in a preliminary research finding that could one day set the stage for new treatments for anthrax and other ailments such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
Soligenix, Inc., a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing products to treat inflammatory diseases and biodefense countermeasures where there remains an unmet medical need, announced a personalized medicine collaboration with SciClone Pharmaceuticals in the Company's oral mucositis clinical program with SGX942.
Soligenix, Inc. (Soligenix or the Company), a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing products to treat inflammatory diseases and biodefense countermeasures where there remains an unmet medical need, announced today that it has enrolled and treated all patients in the Phase 1 Study BDP-PCD-01; the first clinical study for development of SGX203 (oral beclomethasone 17,21-dipropionate or oral BDP) for the treatment of pediatric Crohn's disease.
Anthrax vaccines have a prominent place in the history of medicine. This goes back to, Pasteur, who while everybody associates with the milk treatment process, also worked on rabies and Anthrax vaccines in cattle.
Soligenix, Inc., a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company, announced today that its SGX942 development program for the treatment of oral mucositis as a result of radiation and/or chemotherapy treatment in head and neck cancer patients has received "Fast Track" designation from the US Food and Drug Administration.
PharmAthene, Inc., a biodefense company developing medical countermeasures against biological and chemical threats, announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has lifted the clinical hold previously placed on a proposed Phase II study of SparVax, a next generation recombinant anthrax vaccine.
Grifols, S.A. and Aradigm Corporation today announced the signing of an exclusive, worldwide license for Aradigm's proprietary formulations of inhaled ciprofloxacin (Pulmaquin and Lipoquin) for the treatment of severe respiratory diseases, including non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.
Over the last decade, former Navy Secretary Richard J. Danzig, a prominent lawyer, presidential advisor and biowarfare consultant to the Pentagon and the Department of Homeland Security, has urged the government to counter what he called a major threat to national security.
Today's headlines include reports about the policy and political issues currently surrounding the health law's implementation.
A medication’s optimal results are achieved with specific dose levels and times of administration. In order for patients to achieve the maximum benefit from a medication, they have to adhere to the prescribed dose and time of use.
Soligenix, Inc., a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing products to treat inflammatory diseases and biodefense countermeasures where there remains an unmet medical need, announced today that it has initiated the first clinical study for development of SGX203 (oral beclomethasone 17,21-dipropionate or oral BDP) for the treatment of pediatric Crohn's disease.
Glide Pharma® today announced the award of a sub-contract from Pfenex Inc. to develop a solid formulation containing the recombinant Protective Antigen (rPA) from Bacillus anthracis expressed in Pfēnex Expression Technology™ suitable for delivery with the Glide SDI® (solid dose injector). This approach will address two important logistical constraints of the currently available vaccine, namely, long term stability during storage and ease of administration.
In the most extensive screen of its kind, Texas Biomed scientists in San Antonio have demonstrated the feasibility of repurposing already-approved drugs for use against highly pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Engineering researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have developed a new method to kill deadly pathogenic bacteria, including listeria, in food handling and packaging. This innovation represents an alternative to the use of antibiotics or chemical decontamination in food supply systems.
Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories are developing a medical instrument that will be able to quickly detect a suite of biothreat agents, including anthrax, ricin, botulinum, shiga and SEB toxin.