Novel influenza A (H1N1) is a new flu virus of swine origin that was first detected in Mexico and the United States in March and April, 2009. The first novel H1N1 patient in the United States was confirmed by laboratory testing at CDC on April 15, 2009. The second patient was confirmed on April 17, 2009. It was quickly determined that the virus was spreading from person-to-person. On April 22, CDC activated its Emergency Operations Center to better coordinate the public health response. On April 26, 2009, the United States Government declared a public health emergency.
It’s thought that novel influenza A (H1N1) flu spreads in the same way that regular seasonal influenza viruses spread; mainly through the coughs and sneezes of people who are sick with the virus.
Every living person has trillions of microbes living in their digestive tract, and more than 400 species of bacteria in the gut, more than the number of cells in the body. The normal gut flora is important to maintain eubiosis, the microbial balance in the body.
The normal human gut microbiome is a flourishing community of microorganisms, some of which can affect the human immune system. In a new paper published this week in Cell, researchers found that oral antibiotics, which can kill gut microorganisms, can alter the human immune response to seasonal influenza vaccination.
For researchers with The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine, the work to identify new flu strains and increase the effectiveness of the flu vaccine begins in an unlikely place – pig barns at state and county fairs nationwide.
Women tend to have a greater immune response to a flu vaccination compared to men, but their advantage largely disappears as they age and their estrogen levels decline, suggests a study from researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
In the race to create a universal flu vaccine not dependent on predicting strains of flu, the Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine's Department of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Maryland College of Agriculture and Natural Resources has been awarded a $3.1 million grant.
New research could bring scientists a step closer to developing an effective, universal flu vaccine.
A study of influenza virus transmission in Nicaraguan households reveals new insights into the type of immune responses that may be protective against influenza virus infection, report investigators.
The ever-changing "head" of an influenza virus protein has an unexpected Achilles heel, report scientists funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, one of the National Institutes of Health.
In a new series of articles, experts in immunology, virology, epidemiology, and vaccine development detail efforts to improve seasonal influenza vaccines and ultimately develop a universal influenza vaccine.
Michigan State University scientists have linked a common food preservative to an altered immune response that possibly hinders flu vaccines.
Most people who weather an infection with influenza fully recover after a week or two. But for some, a severe case of the flu can actually reshape the architecture of their lungs and forever compromise their respiratory function.
Results from a 10-year study suggest two strains of influenza that could mix and form a dangerous new strain of influenza spread by dogs.
A sophisticated new analysis tool developed by Florida State University scientists may signal a new era in the study of population genetics.
The World Health Organisation has said that the world is not prepared for a global flu pandemic and that resources are inadequate.
A team of researchers from Scripps Research and Janssen Research & Development LLC has discovered an orally active small molecule that neutralizes influenza A group 1 viruses, the most common flu strains.
The connection between an influenza virus surface protein and a host cell lipid has been discovered by researchers at the University of Maine and the National Institutes of Health. Confirmation of direct interaction between the protein and lipid could lead to new antiviral therapies.
British researchers are genetically engineering flu-resistant chickens in an effort to prevent the next deadly human flu pandemic.
Pregnant women with influenza are more likely to experience complications, but how this affects infants is unclear. A new Birth Defects Research study uncovers the potential risks to infants.
Pregnant women and the extremely obese are among those at high risk for complications from the flu - including death - and should be tested and begin antiviral treatment promptly if they are sick enough to be hospitalized with flu symptoms, according to updated guidelines released by the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
As a leading global city with a high population density, Singapore is vulnerable to the introduction of biological threats. Initiating an early emergency response to such threats calls for the rapid identification of the causative agent.