Methotrexate is an antimetabolite and antifolate agent with antineoplastic and immunosuppressant activities. Methotrexate binds to and inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, resulting in inhibition of purine nucleotide and thymidylate synthesis and, subsequently, inhibition of DNA and RNA syntheses. Methotrexate also exhibits potent immunosuppressant activity although the mechanism(s) of actions is unclear.
Methotrexate is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used by itself to treat the following types of gestational trophoblastic tumors, Chorioadenoma destruens, Choriocarcinoma, Hydatidiform mole. Methotrexate is also approved to be used alone or with other drugs to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that has spread to the central nervous system (CNS) or to keep it from spreading there, and to treat the following, breast cancer, certain types of head and neck cancer, lung cancer, advanced non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), advanced mycosis fungoides (a type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma), osteosarcoma that has not spread to other parts of the body, following surgery to remove the primary tumor. Methotrexate is also approved to treat the following non-cancer conditions, rheumatoid arthritis, severe psoriasis.
Uveitis is an inflammation of the eye and is a common extra-articular manifestation associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). It can cause vision-threatening complications, and if left uncontrolled may even lead to blindness.
Up to a third of patients taking methotrexate – a common treatment for immune mediated inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis – failed to achieve an adequate immune response to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in a small study accepted for publication in the journal Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases.
One-quarter of people who take the drug methotrexate for common immune system disorders -- from rheumatoid arthritis to multiple sclerosis -- mount a weaker immune response to a COVID-19 vaccine, a new study shows.
In the Philippines, in the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic, there occurred a supply shortage of hydroxychloroquine and methotrexate. Limited access to medication and the life changes caused from the COVID-19 pandemic may prompt patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) to experience disease flares.
Researchers from Germany and the USA recently investigated the cellular and humoral immune responses of patients with IMIDs on immunomodulatory treatment to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. The research is published on the medRxiv* preprint server.
People who take a commonly-prescribed drug for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) should not assume they are protected after a first dose of COVID-19 vaccine, after a large-scale study found many had poor antibody responses.
A new study demonstrates that vaccines may be less effective at countering the newer SARS-CoV-2 variants compared to natural infection.
Researchers in Italy have identified a pair of microRNA molecules that help maintain a population of cancerous stem cells that drive the growth of breast cancers and initiate tumor relapse after treatment.
Patients with psoriasis, an autoimmune skin disorder, often have cardiovascular disorders as well. Hence, it is important for patients and clinicians to understand how treatments for psoriasis may influence cardiovascular disease risks.
The novel beta-coronavirus virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and coronaviruses, in general, alter the host's cellular metabolism to support massive production of ~30 kB viral genomes and subgenomic viral RNAs. However, how this is achieved is largely unknown.
An innovative approach to treating bone tumors - starving cancer cells of the energy they need to grow - could one day provide an alternative to a commonly used chemotherapy drug without the risk of severe side effects, suggests a new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.
Researchers led by Ludwig San Diego Member Don Cleveland and Peter Campbell of the Sanger Center have solved the mystery of how free-floating circular DNA fragments, which are almost exclusively found in cancer cells, drive gene amplification to generate drug resistance in cancer.
Cancer is one of the world's greatest health afflictions because, unlike some diseases, it is a moving target, constantly evolving to evade and resist treatment.
Taking the first step and getting medical help for joint pain can be hard, but for autoimmune conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, delaying treatment can lead to increased permanent joint damage and disability.
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a type of cancer that develops in the brain and or spinal cord.
A study led by The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center showed that first-line treatment with a regimen of chemotherapy combined with the monoclonal antibody blinatumomab resulted in increased survival and achieved a high rate of measurable residual disease (MRD) negativity for patients who were newly diagnosed with a high-risk form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) known as Philadelphia chromosome-negative B-cell ALL (Ph-negative B-ALL).
Clinical investigators from Hackensack Meridian Health John Theurer Cancer Center (JTCC), a member of the Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center consortium, are to present updates on treatment advances in multiple myeloma (MM), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), and other types of B-cell lymphoma (BCL) as well as leukemia at the 62nd American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting and Exposition, to be held virtually from December 5-8, 2020.
The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) will preview its 2020 Guideline for the Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) at ACR Convergence, the ACR's annual meeting. The comprehensive, clinical recommendations for pharmacologic treatment of RA includes important updates to the previous guideline released in 2015.
A new study presented at ACR Convergence, the American College of Rheumatology's annual meeting, shows that after three months of treatment with oral methotrexate, adults with primary knee osteoarthritis (OA) with inflammation had significant improvements in physical function and inflammation, a sign that this inexpensive, generic pill may be an important intervention for knee OA.
New research presented at ACR Convergence, the American College of Rheumatology's annual meeting, shows that tuberculosis (TB) screening and ongoing clinical care is needed for people on methotrexate who live in areas where the highly infectious illness is common.