Methotrexate is an antimetabolite and antifolate agent with antineoplastic and immunosuppressant activities. Methotrexate binds to and inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, resulting in inhibition of purine nucleotide and thymidylate synthesis and, subsequently, inhibition of DNA and RNA syntheses. Methotrexate also exhibits potent immunosuppressant activity although the mechanism(s) of actions is unclear.
Methotrexate is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used by itself to treat the following types of gestational trophoblastic tumors, Chorioadenoma destruens, Choriocarcinoma, Hydatidiform mole. Methotrexate is also approved to be used alone or with other drugs to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that has spread to the central nervous system (CNS) or to keep it from spreading there, and to treat the following, breast cancer, certain types of head and neck cancer, lung cancer, advanced non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), advanced mycosis fungoides (a type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma), osteosarcoma that has not spread to other parts of the body, following surgery to remove the primary tumor. Methotrexate is also approved to treat the following non-cancer conditions, rheumatoid arthritis, severe psoriasis.
In a large-scale, international study led by renowned rheumatologist Josef Smolen from the Department of Medicine III, a still-to-be-approved drug containing the selective janus kinase inhibitor upadacitinib has proved itself to be a new option for treating active rheumatoid arthritis.
Through a systematic review of published studies going back 50 years, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers say they have identified a distinct subtype of primary central nervous system lymphoma that should be considered for surgical removal, suggesting a major shift in how this type of tumor is evaluated and managed.
Today, the American College of Rheumatology, in partnership with the Arthritis Foundation, released two guidelines on juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
Tuberculosis, an ancient and notoriously difficult disease to treat, has killed millions through the course of human history; and the antibiotics that have been used to fight the disease in recent history are becoming less and less effective.
Arthritis is not just an ailment of old age--it can affect children too, causing lifelong pain and disability in its most severe forms. Fortunately, some kids grow out of it. Knowing which patients will develop milder forms of disease could spare them unnecessary treatment and potential medication side effects but currently doctors have no way of predicting disease course or severity.
Fatty acid metabolism is an essential process in tumor growth and proliferation. Despite different attempts to block fatty acid metabolism as a therapeutic strategy to reduce tumor size and growth, the outcome was not always positive.
Squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common cancers of the skin and mucosa. Treatment options for the advanced stage have been very limited for patients with tumors of the head and neck, i.e. in the mouth, the pharynx or the larynx: If recurrences or metastases occur during or after platinum-based chemotherapy, the disease is generally considered incurable.
When it comes to reducing inflammation to decrease the risk of heart disease and stroke, results from the much-anticipated Cardiovascular Inflammation Reduction Trial indicate that targeting the right inflammatory pathways in at-risk patients is crucial.
As many as 16.5 million adults in America suffer from a skin disease known as atopic dermatitis, an inflammatory disease that results in red, itchy skin.
A systematic review of research has revealed that the toxic effects on the lung of drugs commonly taken to treat a range of common conditions is much more widespread than thought.
Genentech, a member of the Roche Group, announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved an update to the Rituxan® (rituximab) label to include information on follow up treatment of adult patients with Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis and Microscopic Polyangiitis who have achieved disease control with induction treatment.
Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer have been shown to benefit from chemotherapy prior to surgical removal of the bladder.
The results of a study presented today at the Annual European Congress of Rheumatology report that obesity in women and current smoking in men were the strongest predictors of not achieving remission in early rheumatoid arthritis within a year.
An international team led by Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers has conducted what is believed to be the largest detailed published study of people with a poorly understood skin condition known as prurigo nodularis.
The results of a 23-year, follow-up study presented today at the Annual European Congress of Rheumatology suggest early, intensive treatment of rheumatoid arthritis has long-term benefits including the normalisation of mortality to levels consistent with the general population.
In a federally funded, randomized phase III clinical trial performed by the Children's Oncology Group (COG), 90% of children and young adults with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) or T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LL) were alive four years after starting treatment regimens on this trial, and 84% were cancer free.
Leukemia itself, not just side effects related to its treatment, may increase the risk for long-term problems with attention, organization and related neurocognitive skills in survivors of the most common childhood cancer, according to research from St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. The study appears today in the journal JAMA Oncology.
Results from a phase 2 clinical trial, presented by Seattle Children's Research Institute at the 59th American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting, show that the drug Abatacept (Orencia) nearly eliminated life-threatening severe acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplants.
The memory and thinking problems experienced by cancer survivors, known as "chemo brain" or "chemo fog," are not just the result of chemotherapy treatment, they may start as tumors form and develop, suggests a Baycrest-led study.
In the quest for a new and more effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, researchers from the Keck School of Medicine of USC looked to a primate that mostly roams the land in Asia, the Middle East and Africa.