Human physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems. Most aspects of human physiology are closely homologous to corresponding aspects of animal physiology, and animal experimentation has provided much of the foundation of physiological knowledge. Anatomy and physiology are closely related fields of study: anatomy, the study of form, and physiology, the study of function, are intrinsically tied and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum.
An interdisciplinary team of researchers from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and the School of Engineering & Applied Science is redefining the notion of a wisdom tooth.
The inactivity of astronauts during spaceflights presents a significant risk to their muscles, says a new study in The Journal of Physiology. Scientists have simulated the impact of 21 day spaceflights on the body, and the impact of low gravity environments such as the Moon or Mars.
How aggressive is a tumor? To measure the tumor status without taking tissue samples, Italian researchers have developed a method based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of whole body parts.
A new study from McMaster and York universities has found that poor muscle health may be a complication of Type 1 diabetes, even among active twenty-somethings.
Researchers at the UC Davis MIND Institute have found that children with autism spectrum disorder have reduced immune system regulation, as well as shifts in their gut microbiota.
New research published in The Journal of Physiology has indicated why people with paralysis of their limbs and torso are more likely to suffer from sleep apnoea. This knowledge could be used to develop much-need targeted therapies.
Scientists at the UNC School of Medicine have made a significant advance in the understanding of the complex and fatal neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease.
Stable joint cartilage can be produced from adult stem cells originating from bone marrow. This is made possible by inducing specific molecular processes occurring during embryonic cartilage formation, as researchers from the University and University Hospital of Basel report in the scientific journal PNAS.
Basic researchers Gary Lewin and Norbert Hübner are investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying neurological and heart diseases. Their focus is on understanding the anchoring of ion channels and micropeptides in heart muscle cells.
In 2013, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to three scientists for their contributions to uncovering the mechanisms governing vesicle transport in cells. Their explanations provided both a conceptual and a mechanistic understanding of basic processes at the most fundamental level.
Why does drinking alcohol or consuming sugar make us thirsty? An international study of mice in Texas and humans in Europe reveals an unexpected anti-dehydration mechanism.
Every biology textbook states that cells are life's building blocks. But researchers are only now beginning to understand their diversity. Technologies such as RNA sequencing are revealing which genes are expressed in each individual cell.
Diabetic retinopathy is considered one of the most disabling complications of diabetes and the leading cause of new cases of vision loss among adults.
The kidney is a highly complex organ – far beyond a simple filter. Its function requires intricate interactions between many highly specialized cell types to extract waste, balances body fluids, form urine, regulate blood pressure, and secrete hormones.
An advance by UCLA neuroscientists could lead to a better understanding of astrocytes, a star-shaped brain cell believed to play a key role in neurological disorders like Lou Gehrig's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease.
A University of Delaware researcher is investigating a novel compound's role in combating age-related chronic diseases like mild cognitive disorder and dementia.
A new study suggests that resistance exercise may improve indicators of type 2 diabetes by increasing expression of a protein that regulates blood sugar (glucose) absorption in the body.
Expectant mothers who were more fit before pregnancy are at lower risk of developing gestational diabetes, according to a new study from the University of Iowa.
The disease mechanism for adult-onset progressive degenerative diseases begins much earlier than previously thought, according to a Northwestern Medicine study published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.
An estimated 2 million people in the U.S. are addicted to prescription opioids- powerful doctor-prescribed medications for chronic or severe pain. The drugs are commonly prescribed to treat gastrointestinal pain caused by conditions such as Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), raising the risk of addiction among this population.