Human physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems. Most aspects of human physiology are closely homologous to corresponding aspects of animal physiology, and animal experimentation has provided much of the foundation of physiological knowledge. Anatomy and physiology are closely related fields of study: anatomy, the study of form, and physiology, the study of function, are intrinsically tied and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum.
The brains of most fish and amphibian species contain a pair of conspicuously large nerve cells. These are the largest cells found in any animal brain.
A new study of molecular interactions central to the functioning of biological clocks explains how certain mutations can shorten clock timing, making some people extreme "morning larks" because their internal clocks operate on a 20-hour cycle instead of being synchronized with the 24-hour cycle of day and night.
Living near green spaces is associated with a wide variety of benefits, including a lower risk of obesity, improved attention capacity in children and slower physical decline in old age.
Researchers have developed a method to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness levels that could be applied to data captured by wearable fitness trackers during activities of daily life.
New research spearheaded by McGill University has discovered that bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) found in the intestinal tracts of children may play a role in childhood stunting, a significant impediment to growth that affects 22% of children under the age of five around the world.
Mitochondria are known as the "powerhouses" of cells. However, under critical pathophysiological conditions, they can use cellular energy for self-preservation.
Our microbiomes - the complex communities of microbes that live in, on and around us - are influenced by our diets, habits, environments and genes, and are known to change with age.
Just as people tend to become stuck in their ways as they grow older so too do cells. Neurons in the brain don't one day decide to become heart cells; skin cells repair wounds with skin cells rather than kidney cells.
In salt-sensitive hypertension, immune cells gather in the kidneys and shoot out free radicals, heightening blood pressure and damaging this pair of vital organs, scientists report.
How do some mammals postpone the development of their embryos to await better conditions for having offspring? A recent study at the UW Medicine Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine explored this reproductive enigma, which can occur in more than 130 species of mammals as well as in some marsupials.
A scrupulous gatekeeper stands between the brain and its circulatory system to let in the good and keep out the bad, but this porter, called the blood-brain barrier, also blocks trial drugs to treat diseases like Alzheimer's or cancer from getting into the brain.
You don't have to be a drinker for your brain to be affected by alcoholism.
Bayer and Meiogenix, a biotech company focused on next-generation breeding technologies, announced today a collaboration to advance agricultural research and development by accelerating the development of Meiogenix's proprietary technologies related to plant breeding and genome editing applications.
Soon, robots can take blood samples that can benefit both patients and healthcare workers, thanks to a new blood-sampling robot. A few years back, it was developed but was only tested on plastic arms. Now, the robot has been successfully trialed on live humans.
Two distinct approaches are predominantly used to recapitulate physiologically relevant in vitro human organ models.
Many health conditions - ranging from disease of particular organs such as heart and lungs, widespread metabolic issues such as diabetes, or following trauma such as spinal cord injury – cause difficulties with movement.
Research suggests that a drug recently assessed as a potential treatment for fetal growth restriction may cause high blood pressure and raise blood sugar levels in offspring.
Micro-organisms in the gut support healthy digestion by helping nerve cells within the intestine to regulate the contraction and relaxation of the muscle wall of the colon, according to new research from the Crick and Bern University.
With a $1 million grant from the W. M. Keck Foundation, neuroscience researchers at Washington State University and the University of Massachusetts Amherst will explore whether variations in brain levels of bacterial fragments can account for life's sleep/wake and 24-hour cycles, known as circadian rhythms.
The circadian clock system (from Latin "circa diem", about a day) allows the organisms to anticipate periodical changes of geophysical time, and to adjust to these changes. Nearly all the cells in our body comprise molecular clocks that regulate and synchronize metabolic functions to a 24-hour cycle of day-night changes.