Tryptophan is one of the 20 standard amino acids, as well as an essential amino acid in the human diet.
A metabolic imbalance in some cancer patients following treatment with a checkpoint inhibitor drug, nivolumab, is associated with resistance to the immunotherapy agent and shorter survival, report scientists from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, in collaborative work with the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard.
Two rare but potentially deadly blood-clotting diseases, namely thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, or TTP, and hemolytic uremic syndrome, or HUS, show similar pathologies -- a multitude of painful blockages in small blood vessels that cause varying degrees of organ injury throughout the body. However, the two disorders have distinct biological mechanisms.
Theranostics is an emerging field of medicine whose name is a combination of "therapeutics" and "diagnostics".
A team of researchers has found that a dangerous type of parasite that affects the brain, maintains a stable supply of essential nutrients as it replicates in the host cell. In an unexpected turn of events, the body itself delivers food to the harmful predator.
The antidiabetic medication metformin reduces anxiety-like behaviors in male mice by increasing serotonin availability in the brain, according to a study published in JNeurosci.
Research led by Ashok Aiyar, PhD, Associate Professor of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology at LSU Health New Orleans School of Medicine, has identified a target that may lead to the development of new treatments for the most common sexually transmitted infection in the US.
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an increasing health threat, making new antibiotics essential. German researchers have recently had a breakthrough: they discovered lugdunin in the human nose--a new kind of cyclic peptide that comes from the bacterium Staphylococcus lugdunensis and has strong antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus aureus, among others.
A study conducted by an international group of researchers has overturned the understanding of life-threatening inflammatory diseases such as sepsis, pointing to a biochemical agent that may be involved in the rapid decline in blood pressure that occurs in the advanced stage of sepsis and usually causes the patient's death. This discovery could pave the way for novel therapeutic approaches.
Researchers have devised a sensitive and accurate analytical LC-MS technique for the seven metabolites in the melatonin biosynthesis pathway of rice shoots.
Brazilian and US researchers have developed a molecule called FRW that, in tests with mice, proved capable of binding to blood vessels in the brain but not in other organs when injected into the bloodstream.
New research suggests that BCAAs in the form of pre-mixed protein powders, shakes and supplements may do more harm to health than good.
In an article published in the journal ACS Infectious Diseases, Brazilian researchers describe the bactericidal action mechanism of violacein, a violet pigment produced by environmental bacteria, especially Chromobacterium violaceum.
Before being tested in animals or humans, most cancer drugs are evaluated in tumor cells grown in a lab dish.
New research suggests that exercise-induced muscle changes could help boost mood in older adults. The study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology--Cell Physiology.
Researchers from North Carolina State University have developed an artificial enzymatic pathway for synthesizing isoprenoids, or terpenes, in E. coli.
A new drug could significantly slow the progression of ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, according to new research by University of Alberta biologists. Current treatments slow progression of the degenerative disease by only a few months, and these findings could revolutionize the treatment of patients suffering from ALS, extending and improving quality of life.
Sixty years after melatonin was isolated and with more than 23,000 published studies showing the many functions of this hormone secreted by the pineal gland, guidelines should be discussed and established for its therapeutic use.
A study of 63 healthy people showed that those with elevated microbiome levels of the metabolite indole -; produced when gut bacteria break down the amino acid tryptophan -; had stronger function and connectivity in specific areas of the brain's reward network.
An analysis of small molecules called "metabolites" in a blood sample may be used to determine whether a person is following a prescribed diet, scientists at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health have shown.
There's more than one type of fat cell. Besides the white fat that stores triglycerides in lipid droplets in preparation for lean times later, mammals also have heat-generating brown fat, which acts more like a radiator than a storage closet.