Humans normally have 46 chromosomes in each cell, divided into 23 pairs. Two copies of chromosome 14, one copy inherited from each parent, form one of the pairs. Chromosome 14 spans about 106 million DNA building blocks (base pairs) and represents 3 percent to 3.5 percent of the total DNA in cells.
Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. Chromosome 14 likely contains between 800 and 1,300 genes.
Genes on chromosome 14 are among the estimated 20,000 to 25,000 total genes in the human genome.
Researchers from the University of Tennessee Health Science Center have made a foundational discovery about chromosome biology through their work on the first-ever human pangenome reference.
The researchers caution: "The CRISPR genome editing method is very effective, but not always safe. Sometimes cleaved chromosomes do not recover and genomic stability is compromised - which in the long run might promote cancer."
Now a new preprint research paper posted to the bioRxiv* server dismisses the possibility, raised by that study, that the virus inserts its genetic material into the host cell’s genome.
In cancer, a lot of biology goes awry: Genes mutate, molecular processes change dramatically, and cells proliferate uncontrollably to form entirely new tissues that we call tumors.
The difference between webbed toes and distinct digits may be the result of not just genetic information, but of how the genes regulate that information. Researchers at the National Institute of Genetics, Research Organization of Information and Systems in Japan found that a small, non-specific tweak to a mammal's DNA can potentially cause specific and significant physical changes.
Thyroid cancer is a disease with good cure rates in most cases. In 5% of patients, however, the tumor becomes refractory to the available therapies and may spread all over the body, causing death.
Everyone knows that long bits of yarn, or charging cables and the like, tend to get quickly tangled and form nasty knots. Little is known about the structures of our genetic material, chromosomes, which also consist of long strings that -- according to our experience -- should be likely to become knotted. However, up to now it has not been possible to study this experimentally.
Big data: It's a term we read and hear about often, but is hard to grasp. Computer scientists at Washington University in St. Louis' School of Engineering & Applied Science tackled some big data about an important protein and discovered its connection in human history as well as clues about its role in complex neurological diseases.
Whitehead Institute scientists have identified a genetic cause of a facial disorder known as hemifacial microsomia (HFM). The researchers find that duplication of the gene OTX2 induces HFM, the second-most common facial anomaly after cleft lip and palate.
Researchers with the Institute of Urologic Oncology and the Department of Urology at UCLA have classified kidney cancer into several unique subtypes, a finding that will help physicians tailor treatment to individual patients and that moves cancer care one step closer to personalized medicine.
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have shown how an aggressive form of multiple myeloma resists chemotherapy.
Four siblings in a family affected by early-onset Alzheimer's have been studied by a group of researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden. This has been a unique opportunity to make comparative studies and to monitor the development of the disease over a prolonged period of time.
The road to type 2 diabetes is paved with insulin resistance, a condition often associated with obesity in which the hormone begins to fail at its job helping to convert sugars to energy.
A common genetic variation links to both bladder cancer risk and to the length of protective caps found on the ends of chromosomes, scientists at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center reported today at the AACR 102nd Annual Meeting.
Mayo Clinic researchers and their international colleagues have discovered genetic variants that lead to severe arthritis for a subset of women when taking aromatase inhibitors to treat their breast cancer. This serious side effect is so painful that many women halt their lifesaving medication. The findings appear today in the online issue of Journal of Clinical Oncology.
An international team of scientists, supported in part by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), one of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), have announced that its systematic effort to map the genomic changes underlying lung cancer has uncovered a critical gene alteration not previously linked to any form of cancer.
An international team of scientists has announced the results of a systematic effort to map the genetic changes underlying lung cancer, the world's leading cause of cancer deaths.
Researchers at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) have discovered three genes that interact with cancerous results in 20% of lung cancers.
Researchers have identified genetic markers on several chromosomes in the tissue surrounding tumor cells that are associated with breast cancer tumor grade and the presence of lymph node metastases, according to a study in the May 16 issue of JAMA.
A gene that's normally silenced after contributing to brain development was found to be expressed in cells from medulloblastoma, the most common form of pediatric brain malignancy in children, scientists report in an article published in the February 1 issue of the journal Cancer Research.