Chromosome Y News and Research

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The Y chromosome is one of the two sex chromosomes in humans (the other is the X chromosome). The sex chromosomes form one of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes in each cell. The Y chromosome spans about 58 million base pairs (the building blocks of DNA) and represents almost 2 percent of the total DNA in cells.

Each person normally has one pair of sex chromosomes in each cell. The Y chromosome is present in males, who have one X and one Y chromosome, while females have two X chromosomes.

Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. The Y chromosome likely contains between 70 and 200 genes. Because only males have the Y chromosome, the genes on this chromosome tend to be involved in male sex determination and development. Sex is determined by the SRY gene, which is responsible for the development of a fetus into a male. Other genes on the Y chromosome are important for male fertility.

Many genes are unique to the X or Y chromosome, but genes in an area known as the pseudoautosomal region are present on both chromosomes. As a result, men and women each have two functional copies of these genes. Many genes in the pseudoautosomal region are essential for normal development.

Genes on the Y chromosome are among the estimated 20,000 to 25,000 total genes in the human genome.
New mathematical tool used to study the genetic interactions associated with cancer

New mathematical tool used to study the genetic interactions associated with cancer

New defense mechanism makes lethal Salmonella strain resistant to viral infection

New defense mechanism makes lethal Salmonella strain resistant to viral infection

Artificial intelligence tool to predict the risk of psychotic illness

Artificial intelligence tool to predict the risk of psychotic illness

Review of COVID-19 clinical and viral characteristics, pathogenesis, and genetics

Review of COVID-19 clinical and viral characteristics, pathogenesis, and genetics

Penn scientists win 2021 Lasker Award for the discovery of therapeutic mRNA technology

Penn scientists win 2021 Lasker Award for the discovery of therapeutic mRNA technology

Researchers identify distinctive biological markers for earlier detection of pregnancy risks

Researchers identify distinctive biological markers for earlier detection of pregnancy risks

Role of host gene variants in COVID-19 severity

Role of host gene variants in COVID-19 severity

Researcher explores the genetic interplay between personality traits and COVID

Researcher explores the genetic interplay between personality traits and COVID

Sex defining factors influence expression of ACE2 and other SARS-CoV-2 machinery

Sex defining factors influence expression of ACE2 and other SARS-CoV-2 machinery

Scientists identify a possible “Achilles’ heel” in the frustration of amyloid beta peptides

Scientists identify a possible “Achilles’ heel” in the frustration of amyloid beta peptides

Cancer treatment with terpyridine platinum compounds induces telomere dysfunction, chromosome instability

Cancer treatment with terpyridine platinum compounds induces telomere dysfunction, chromosome instability

Researchers develop a machine learning-based screening tool for genetic syndromes in children

Researchers develop a machine learning-based screening tool for genetic syndromes in children

Growing wheat varieties with biological nitrification inhibition trait could increase yields

Growing wheat varieties with biological nitrification inhibition trait could increase yields

Uppsala researchers find solution to long-standing biological search enigma

Uppsala researchers find solution to long-standing biological search enigma

New, one-stop method developed to avoid de novo genetic disease in embryos

New, one-stop method developed to avoid de novo genetic disease in embryos

Research offers new insight into how to treat endometriosis

Research offers new insight into how to treat endometriosis

Penn study shows how certain proteins have evolved to suppress cheating chromosomes

Penn study shows how certain proteins have evolved to suppress cheating chromosomes

Analysis of seadragon genome offers new insights into its phenotype and sex-determination locus

Analysis of seadragon genome offers new insights into its phenotype and sex-determination locus

Study provides insight into fitness effects of genomic structural variants in natural populations

Study provides insight into fitness effects of genomic structural variants in natural populations

Structure of BRCA2 protein complex critical for DNA repair solved

Structure of BRCA2 protein complex critical for DNA repair solved