Chromosome Y News and Research

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The Y chromosome is one of the two sex chromosomes in humans (the other is the X chromosome). The sex chromosomes form one of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes in each cell. The Y chromosome spans about 58 million base pairs (the building blocks of DNA) and represents almost 2 percent of the total DNA in cells.

Each person normally has one pair of sex chromosomes in each cell. The Y chromosome is present in males, who have one X and one Y chromosome, while females have two X chromosomes.

Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. The Y chromosome likely contains between 70 and 200 genes. Because only males have the Y chromosome, the genes on this chromosome tend to be involved in male sex determination and development. Sex is determined by the SRY gene, which is responsible for the development of a fetus into a male. Other genes on the Y chromosome are important for male fertility.

Many genes are unique to the X or Y chromosome, but genes in an area known as the pseudoautosomal region are present on both chromosomes. As a result, men and women each have two functional copies of these genes. Many genes in the pseudoautosomal region are essential for normal development.

Genes on the Y chromosome are among the estimated 20,000 to 25,000 total genes in the human genome.
Persistent DNA damage in the placenta can affect embryonic growth

Persistent DNA damage in the placenta can affect embryonic growth

MGH researchers identify key mechanism in X chromosome inactivation

MGH researchers identify key mechanism in X chromosome inactivation

New insights on DNA replication can help develop novel cancer treatments

New insights on DNA replication can help develop novel cancer treatments

New Canadian study investigates how cancer adapts its metabolism to overcome therapies

New Canadian study investigates how cancer adapts its metabolism to overcome therapies

New images of LSD1 enzyme in action shed light on gene regulation

New images of LSD1 enzyme in action shed light on gene regulation

SARS-CoV-2 gene deletions may cause milder infections and increase human-to-human transmission

SARS-CoV-2 gene deletions may cause milder infections and increase human-to-human transmission

New studies provide insights into DNA crossovers in egg and sperm cells

New studies provide insights into DNA crossovers in egg and sperm cells

How COVID-19 affects people with Down Syndrome

How COVID-19 affects people with Down Syndrome

Blood group type may affect susceptibility to COVID-19 respiratory failure

Blood group type may affect susceptibility to COVID-19 respiratory failure

Researchers discover genetic cause of 'differences in sexual development'

Researchers discover genetic cause of 'differences in sexual development'

New genetic engineering technique sets the stage for advances in medicine and beyond

New genetic engineering technique sets the stage for advances in medicine and beyond

Targeted therapy pralsetinib shows high response rates in patients with RET fusion-positive cancers

Targeted therapy pralsetinib shows high response rates in patients with RET fusion-positive cancers

Study sheds light on homologous recombination of DNA strands

Study sheds light on homologous recombination of DNA strands

Mouse model mimics clinical course and pathology observed in COVID-19 patients

Mouse model mimics clinical course and pathology observed in COVID-19 patients

Researchers investigate the early development of ovarian cancer

Researchers investigate the early development of ovarian cancer

New genomic method helps obtain high-resolution maps of DNA in the cell nucleus

New genomic method helps obtain high-resolution maps of DNA in the cell nucleus

Researchers recombine entire chromosomes with CRISPR/Cas technology

Researchers recombine entire chromosomes with CRISPR/Cas technology

Study uncovers the role of DNA repair in preserving egg quality

Study uncovers the role of DNA repair in preserving egg quality

Novel biomarkers linked to improved outcomes with immunotherapy in metastatic breast cancer

Novel biomarkers linked to improved outcomes with immunotherapy in metastatic breast cancer

Research demonstrates self-synthesis and assembly of 30S subunit of ribosome

Research demonstrates self-synthesis and assembly of 30S subunit of ribosome