1. Holger Lundstrom Holger Lundstrom Austria says:

    If the unvaccinated individuals did not have antibodies that bind to the S1 subunit, but the vaccinated individuals had such antibodies, then there is only one possible conclusion to this finding: during an infection with SARS-CoV-2, binding epitopes of the S1 subunit are not exposed. Clearly, if the S1 subunit were exposed during natural infection, antibodies would have been developed against this subunit by people with natural immunity.

    In effect, the study documents that a part of the antibodies produced as a result of vaccination are artificial and produce no additional value during an infection with the virus. They are, in essence, completely useless.

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